Salvador Fandiño García > Net-SFTP-Foreign > Net::SFTP::Foreign

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Module Version: 1.77   Source   Latest Release: Net-SFTP-Foreign-1.78_01

NAME ^

Net::SFTP::Foreign - SSH File Transfer Protocol client

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Net::SFTP::Foreign;
    my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host);
    $sftp->die_on_error("Unable to establish SFTP connection");

    $sftp->setcwd($path) or die "unable to change cwd: " . $sftp->error;

    $sftp->get("foo", "bar") or die "get failed: " . $sftp->error;

    $sftp->put("bar", "baz") or die "put failed: " . $sftp->error;

DESCRIPTION ^

SFTP stands for SSH File Transfer Protocol and is a method of transferring files between machines over a secure, encrypted connection (as opposed to regular FTP, which functions over an insecure connection). The security in SFTP comes through its integration with SSH, which provides an encrypted transport layer over which the SFTP commands are executed.

Net::SFTP::Foreign is a Perl client for the SFTP version 3 as defined in the SSH File Transfer Protocol IETF draft, which can be found at http://www.openssh.org/txt/draft-ietf-secsh-filexfer-02.txt (also included on this package distribution, on the rfc directory).

Net::SFTP::Foreign uses any compatible ssh command installed on the system (for instance, OpenSSH ssh) to establish the secure connection to the remote server.

A wrapper module Net::SFTP::Foreign::Compat is also provided for compatibility with Net::SFTP.

Net::SFTP::Foreign Vs. Net::SFTP Vs. Net::SSH2::SFTP

Why should I prefer Net::SFTP::Foreign over Net::SFTP?

Well, both modules have their pros and cons:

Net::SFTP::Foreign does not require a bunch of additional modules and external libraries to work, just the OpenBSD SSH client (or any other client compatible enough).

I trust OpenSSH SSH client more than Net::SSH::Perl, there are lots of paranoid people ensuring that OpenSSH doesn't have security holes!!!

If you have an SSH infrastructure already deployed, by using the same binary SSH client, Net::SFTP::Foreign ensures a seamless integration within your environment (configuration files, keys, etc.).

Net::SFTP::Foreign is much faster transferring files, specially over networks with high (relative) latency.

Net::SFTP::Foreign provides several high level methods not available from Net::SFTP as for instance find, glob, rget, rput, rremove, mget, mput.

On the other hand, using the external command means an additional process being launched and running, depending on your OS this could eat more resources than the in process pure perl implementation provided by Net::SSH::Perl.

Net::SSH2 is a module wrapping libssh2, an SSH version 2 client library written in C. It is a very active project that aims to replace Net::SSH::Perl. Unfortunately, libssh2 SFTP functionality (available in Perl via Net::SSH2::SFTP) is rather limited and its performance very poor.

Later versions of Net::SFTP::Foreign can use Net::SSH2 as the transport layer via the backend module Net::SFTP::Foreign::Backend::Net_SSH2.

Error handling

Most of the methods available from this package return undef on failure and a true value or the requested data on success. $sftp->error should be used to check for errors explicitly after every method call. For instance:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host);
  $sftp->error and die "unable to connect to remote host: " . $sftp->error;

Also, the "die_on_error" method provides a handy shortcut for the last line:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host);
  $sftp->die_on_error("unable to connect to remote host");

Alternatively, the autodie mode that makes the module die when any error is found can be activated from the constructor. For instance:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host, autodie => 1);
  my $ls = $sftp->ls("/bar");
  # dies as: "Couldn't open remote dir '/bar': No such file"

The autodie mode will be disabled when an on_error handler is passed to methods accepting it:

  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host, autodie => 1);
  # prints "foo!" and does not die:
  $sftp->find("/sdfjkalshfl", # nonexistent directory
              on_error => sub { print "foo!\n" });
  # dies:
  $sftp->find("/sdfjkalshfl");

API

The methods available from this module are described below.

Don't forget to read also the FAQ and BUGS sections at the end of this document!

Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host, %args)
Net::SFTP::Foreign->new(%args)

Opens a new SFTP connection with a remote host $host, and returns a Net::SFTP::Foreign object representing that open connection.

An explicit check for errors should be included always after the constructor call:

  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new(...);
  $sftp->die_on_error("SSH connection failed");

The optional arguments accepted are as follows:

host => $hostname

remote host name

user => $username

username to log in to the remote server. This should be your SSH login, and can be empty, in which case the username is drawn from the user executing the process.

port => $portnumber

port number where the remote SSH server is listening

ssh1 => 1

use old SSH1 approach for starting the remote SFTP server.

more => [@more_ssh_args]

additional args passed to ssh command.

For debugging purposes you can run ssh in verbose mode passing it the -v option:

  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host, more => '-v');

Note that this option expects a single command argument or a reference to an array of arguments. For instance:

  more => '-v'         # right
  more => ['-v']       # right
  more => "-c $cipher"    # wrong!!!
  more => [-c => $cipher] # right
timeout => $seconds

when this parameter is set, the connection is dropped if no data arrives on the SSH socket for the given time while waiting for some command to complete.

When the timeout expires, the current method is aborted and the SFTP connection becomes invalid.

fs_encoding => $encoding

Version 3 of the SFTP protocol (the one supported by this module) knows nothing about the character encoding used on the remote filesystem to represent file and directory names.

This option allows one to select the encoding used in the remote machine. The default value is utf8.

For instance:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new('user@host', fs_encoding => 'latin1');

will convert any path name passed to any method in this package to its latin1 representation before sending it to the remote side.

Note that this option will not affect file contents in any way.

This feature is not supported in perl 5.6 due to incomplete Unicode support in the interpreter.

key_path => $filename
key_path => \@filenames

asks ssh to use the key(s) in the given file(s) for authentication.

password => $password

Logs into the remote host using password authentication with the given password.

Password authentication is only available if the module IO::Pty is installed. Note also, that on Windows this module is only available when running the Cygwin port of Perl.

asks_for_username_at_login => 0|'auto'|1

During the interactive authentication dialog, most SSH servers only ask for the user password as the login name is passed inside the SSH protocol. But under some uncommon servers or configurations it is possible that a username is also requested.

When this flag is set to 1, the username will be send unconditionally at the first remote prompt and then the password at the second.

When it is set to auto the module will use some heuristics in order to determine if it is being asked for an username.

When set to 0, the username will never be sent during the authentication dialog. This is the default.

password_prompt => $regex_or_str

The module expects the password prompt from the remote server to end in a colon or a question mark. This seems to cover correctly 99% of real life cases.

Otherwise this option can be used to handle the exceptional cases. For instance:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host, password => $password,
                                  password_prompt => qr/\bpassword>\s*$/);

Note that your script will hang at the login phase if the wrong prompt is used.

passphrase => $passphrase

Logs into the remote server using a passphrase protected private key.

Requires also the module IO::Pty.

expect_log_user => $bool

This feature is obsolete as Expect is not used anymore to handle password authentication.

ssh_cmd => $sshcmd
ssh_cmd => \@sshcmd

name of the external SSH client. By default ssh is used.

For instance:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host, ssh_cmd => 'plink');

When an array reference is used, its elements are inserted at the beginning of the system call. That allows, for instance, to connect to the target host through some SSH proxy:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
              ssh_cmd => qw(ssh -l user proxy.server ssh));

But note that the module will not handle password authentication for those proxies.

ssh_cmd_interface => 'plink' or 'ssh' or 'tectia'

declares the command line interface that the SSH client used to connect to the remote host understands. Currently plink, ssh and tectia are supported.

This option would be rarely required as the module infers the interface from the SSH command name.

transport => $fh
transport => [$in_fh, $out_fh]
transport => [$in_fh, $out_fh, $pid]

allows one to use an already open pipe or socket as the transport for the SFTP protocol.

It can be (ab)used to make this module work with password authentication or with keys requiring a passphrase.

in_fh is the file handler used to read data from the remote server, out_fh is the file handler used to write data.

On some systems, when using a pipe as the transport, closing it, does not cause the process at the other side to exit. The additional $pid argument can be used to instruct this module to kill that process if it doesn't exit by itself.

open2_cmd => [@cmd]
open2_cmd => $cmd;

allows one to completely redefine how ssh is called. Its arguments are passed to IPC::Open2::open2 to open a pipe to the remote server.

stderr_fh => $fh

redirects the output sent to stderr by the SSH subprocess to the given file handle.

It can be used to suppress banners:

  open my $ssherr, '>', '/dev/null' or die "unable to open /dev/null";
  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
                                     stderr_fh => $ssherr);

Or to send SSH stderr to a file in order to capture errors for later analysis:

  my $ssherr = File::Temp->new or die "File::Temp->new failed";
  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($hostname, more => ['-v'],
                                     stderr_fh => $ssherr);
  if ($sftp->error) {
    print "sftp error: ".$sftp->error."\n";
    seek($ssherr, 0, 0);
    while (<$ssherr>) {
      print "captured stderr: $_";
    }
  }
stderr_discard => 1

redirects stderr to /dev/null

block_size => $default_block_size
queue_size => $default_queue_size

default block_size and queue_size used for read and write operations (see the put or get documentation).

autoflush => $bool

by default, and for performance reasons, write operations are cached, and only when the write buffer becomes big enough is the data written to the remote file. Setting this flag makes the write operations immediate.

write_delay => $bytes

This option determines how many bytes are buffered before the real SFTP write operation is performed.

read_ahead => $bytes

On read operations this option determines how many bytes to read in advance so that later read operations can be fulfilled from the buffer.

Using a high value will increase the performance of the module for a sequential reads access pattern but degrade it for a short random reads access pattern. It can also cause synchronization problems if the file is concurrently modified by other parties ("flush" can be used to discard all the data inside the read buffer on demand).

The default value is set dynamically considering some runtime parameters and given options, though it tends to favor the sequential read access pattern.

autodisconnect => $ad

by default, the SSH connection is closed from the DESTROY method when the object goes out of scope. But on scripts that fork new processes, that results on the SSH connection being closed by the first process where the object goes out of scope, something undesirable.

This option allows one to work-around this issue to some extend.

The acceptable values for $ad are:

0

Never try to disconnect this object when exiting from any process.

On most operating systems, the SSH process will exit when the last process connected to it ends, but this is not guaranteed.

1

Disconnect on exit from any process. This is the default.

2

Disconnect on exit from the current process only.

See also the disconnect and autodisconnect methods.

late_set_perm => $bool

See the FAQ below.

dirty_cleanup => $bool

Sets the dirty_cleanup flag in a per object basis (see the BUGS section).

backend => $backend

From version 1.57 Net::SFTP::Foreign supports plugable backends in order to allow other ways to communicate with the remote server in addition to the default pipe-to-ssh-process.

Custom backends may change the set of options supported by the new method.

autodie => $bool

Enables the autodie mode that will cause the module to die when any error is found (a la autodie).

$sftp->error

Returns the error code from the last executed command. The value returned is similar to $!, when used as a string it yields the corresponding error string.

See Net::SFTP::Foreign::Constants for a list of possible error codes and how to import them on your scripts.

$sftp->die_on_error($msg)

Convenience method:

  $sftp->die_on_error("Something bad happened");
  # is a shortcut for...
  $sftp->error and die "Something bad happened: " . $sftp->error;
$sftp->status

Returns the code from the last SSH2_FXP_STATUS response. It is also a dualvar that yields the status string when used as a string.

Usually $sftp->error should be checked first to see if there was any error and then $sftp->status to find out its low level cause.

$sftp->cwd

Returns the remote current working directory.

When a relative remote path is passed to any of the methods on this package, this directory is used to compose the absolute path.

$sftp->setcwd($dir)

Changes the remote current working directory. The remote directory should exist, otherwise the call fails.

Returns the new remote current working directory or undef on failure.

$sftp->get($remote, $local, %options)

Copies remote file $remote to local $local. By default file attributes are also copied (permissions, atime and mtime). For instance:

  $sftp->get('/var/log/messages', /tmp/messages')
    or die "file transfer failed: " . $sftp->error;

A file handle can also be used as the local target. In that case, the remote file contents are retrieved and written to the given file handle. Note also that the handle is not closed when the transmission finish.

  open F, '| gzip -c > /tmp/foo' or die ...;
  $sftp->get("/etc/passwd", \*F)
    or die "get failed: " . $sftp->error;
  close F or die ...;

Accepted options (not all combinations are possible):

copy_time => $bool

determines if access and modification time attributes have to be copied from remote file. Default is to copy them.

copy_perm => $bool

determines if permission attributes have to be copied from remote file. Default is to copy them after applying the local process umask.

umask => $umask

allows one to select the umask to apply when setting the permissions of the copied file. Default is to use the umask for the current process or 0 if the perm option is also used.

perm => $perm

sets the permission mask of the file to be $perm, remote permissions are ignored.

resume => 1 | 'auto'

resumes an interrupted transfer.

If the auto value is given, the transfer will be resumed only when the local file is newer than the remote one.

get transfers can not be resumed when a data conversion is in place.

append => 1

appends the contents of the remote file at the end of the local one instead of overwriting it. If the local file does not exist a new one is created.

overwrite => 0

setting this option to zero cancels the transfer when a local file of the same name already exists.

numbered => 1

modifies the local file name inserting a sequence number when required in order to avoid overwriting local files.

For instance:

  for (1..2) {
    $sftp->get("data.txt", "data.txt", numbered => 1);
  }

will copy the remote file as data.txt the first time and as data(1).txt the second one.

If a scalar reference is passed as the numbered value, the final target will be stored in the value pointed by the reference. For instance:

  my $target;
  $sftp->get("data.txt", "data.txt", numbered => \$target);
  say "file was saved as $target" unless $sftp->error
atomic => 1

The remote file contents are transferred into a temporal file that once the copy completes is renamed to the target destination.

If not-overwrite of remote files is also requested, an empty file may appear at the target destination before the rename operation is performed. This is due to limitations of some operating/file systems.

cleanup => 1

If the transfer fails, remove the incomplete file.

This option is set to by default when there is not possible to resume the transfer afterwards (i.e., when using `atomic` or `numbered` options).

best_effort => 1

Ignore minor errors as setting time or permissions.

conversion => $conversion

on the fly data conversion of the file contents can be performed with this option. See "On the fly data conversion" below.

callback => $callback

$callback is a reference to a subroutine that will be called after every iteration of the download process.

The callback function will receive as arguments: the current Net::SFTP::Foreign object; the data read from the remote file; the offset from the beginning of the file in bytes; and the total size of the file in bytes.

This mechanism can be used to provide status messages, download progress meters, etc.:

    sub callback {
        my($sftp, $data, $offset, $size) = @_;
        print "Read $offset / $size bytes\r";
    }

The abort method can be called from inside the callback to abort the transfer:

    sub callback {
        my($sftp, $data, $offset, $size) = @_;
        if (want_to_abort_transfer()) {
            $sftp->abort("You wanted to abort the transfer");
        }
    }

The callback will be called one last time with an empty data argument to indicate the end of the file transfer.

The size argument can change between different calls as data is transferred (for instance, when on-the-fly data conversion is being performed or when the size of the file can not be retrieved with the stat SFTP command before the data transfer starts).

block_size => $bytes

size of the blocks the file is being split on for transfer. Incrementing this value can improve performance but most servers limit the maximum size.

queue_size => $size

read and write requests are pipelined in order to maximize transfer throughput. This option allows one to set the maximum number of requests that can be concurrently waiting for a server response.

$sftp->get_content($remote)

Returns the content of the remote file.

$sftp->get_symlink($remote, $local, %opts)

copies a symlink from the remote server to the local file system

The accepted options are overwrite and numbered. They have the same effect as for the get method.

$sftp->put($local, $remote, %opts)

Uploads a file $local from the local host to the remote host saving it as $remote. By default file attributes are also copied. For instance:

  $sftp->put("test.txt", "test.txt")
    or die "put failed: " . $sftp->error;

A file handle can also be passed in the $local argument. In that case, data is read from there and stored in the remote file. UTF8 data is not supported unless a custom converter callback is used to transform it to bytes. The method will croak if it encounters any data in perl internal UTF8 format. Note also that the handle is not closed when the transmission finish.

Example:

  binmode STDIN;
  $sftp->put(\*STDIN, "stdin.dat") or die "put failed";
  close STDIN;

This method accepts several options:

copy_time => $bool

determines if access and modification time attributes have to be copied from remote file. Default is to copy them.

copy_perm => $bool

determines if permission attributes have to be copied from remote file. Default is to copy them after applying the local process umask.

umask => $umask

allows one to select the umask to apply when setting the permissions of the copied file. Default is to use the umask for the current process.

perm => $perm

sets the permission mask of the file to be $perm, umask and local permissions are ignored.

overwrite => 0

by default put will overwrite any pre-existent file with the same name at the remote side. Setting this flag to zero will make the method fail in that case.

numbered => 1

when set, a sequence number is added to the remote file name in order to avoid overwriting pre-existent files. Off by default.

append => 1

appends the local file at the end of the remote file instead of overwriting it. If the remote file does not exist a new one is created. Off by default.

resume => 1 | 'auto'

resumes an interrupted transfer.

If the auto value is given, the transfer will be resumed only when the remote file is newer than the local one.

sparse => 1

Blocks that are all zeros are skipped possibly creating an sparse file on the remote host.

atomic => 1

The local file contents are transferred into a temporal file that once the copy completes is renamed to the target destination.

This operation relies on the SSH server to perform an overwriting/non-overwriting atomic rename operation free of race conditions.

OpenSSH server does it correctly on top of Linux/UNIX native file systems (i.e. ext[234]>, ffs or zfs) but has problems on file systems not supporting hard links (i.e. FAT) or on operating systems with broken POSIX semantics as Windows.

cleanup => 1

If the transfer fails, attempts to remove the incomplete file. Cleanup may fail (for example, if the SSH connection gets broken).

This option is set by default when the transfer is not resumable (i.e., when using `atomic` or `numbered` options).

best_effort => 1

Ignore minor errors, as setting time and permissions on the remote file.

conversion => $conversion

on the fly data conversion of the file contents can be performed with this option. See "On the fly data conversion" below.

callback => $callback

$callback is a reference to a subroutine that will be called after every iteration of the upload process.

The callback function will receive as arguments: the current Net::SFTP::Foreign object; the data that is going to be written to the remote file; the offset from the beginning of the file in bytes; and the total size of the file in bytes.

The callback will be called one last time with an empty data argument to indicate the end of the file transfer.

The size argument can change between calls as data is transferred (for instance, when on the fly data conversion is being performed).

This mechanism can be used to provide status messages, download progress meters, etc.

The abort method can be called from inside the callback to abort the transfer.

block_size => $bytes

size of the blocks the file is being split on for transfer. Incrementing this value can improve performance but some servers limit its size and if this limit is overpassed the command will fail.

queue_size => $size

read and write requests are pipelined in order to maximize transfer throughput. This option allows one to set the maximum number of requests that can be concurrently waiting for a server response.

late_set_perm => $bool

See the FAQ below.

$sftp->put_content($bytes, $remote, %opts)

Creates (or overwrites) a remote file whose content is the passed data.

$sftp->put_symlink($local, $remote, %opts)

Copies a local symlink to the remote host.

The accepted options are overwrite and numbered.

$sftp->abort()
$sftp->abort($msg)

This method, when called from inside a callback sub, causes the current transfer to be aborted

The error state is set to SFTP_ERR_ABORTED and the optional $msg argument is used as its textual value.

$sftp->ls($remote, %opts)

Fetches a listing of the remote directory $remote. If $remote is not given, the current remote working directory is listed.

Returns a reference to a list of entries. Every entry is a reference to a hash with three keys: filename, the name of the entry; longname, an entry in a "long" listing like ls -l; and a, a Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes object containing file atime, mtime, permissions and size.

    my $ls = $sftp->ls('/home/foo')
        or die "unable to retrieve directory: ".$sftp->error;

    print "$_->{filename}\n" for (@$ls);

The options accepted by this method are as follows (note that usage of some of them can degrade the method performance when reading large directories):

wanted => qr/.../

Only elements whose name matches the given regular expression are included on the listing.

wanted => sub {...}

Only elements for which the callback returns a true value are included on the listing. The callback is called with two arguments: the $sftp object and the current entry (a hash reference as described before). For instance:

  use Fcntl ':mode';

  my $files = $sftp->ls ( '/home/hommer',
                          wanted => sub {
                              my $entry = $_[1];
                              S_ISREG($entry->{a}->perm)
                          } )
        or die "ls failed: ".$sftp->error;
no_wanted => qr/.../
no_wanted => sub {...}

those options have the opposite result to their wanted counterparts:

  my $no_hidden = $sftp->ls( '/home/homer',
                             no_wanted => qr/^\./ )
        or die "ls failed";

When both no_wanted and wanted rules are used, the no_wanted rule is applied first and then the wanted one (order is important if the callbacks have side effects, experiment!).

ordered => 1

the list of entries is ordered by filename.

follow_links => 1

by default, the attributes on the listing correspond to a lstat operation, setting this option causes the method to perform stat requests instead. lstat attributes will still appear for links pointing to non existent places.

atomic_readdir => 1

reading a directory is not an atomic SFTP operation and the protocol draft does not define what happens if readdir requests and write operations (for instance remove or open) affecting the same directory are intermixed.

This flag ensures that no callback call (wanted, no_wanted) is performed in the middle of reading a directory and has to be set if any of the callbacks can modify the file system.

realpath => 1

for every file object, performs a realpath operation and populates the realpath entry.

names_only => 1

makes the method return a simple array containing the file names from the remote directory only. For instance, these two sentences are equivalent:

  my @ls1 = @{ $sftp->ls('.', names_only => 1) };

  my @ls2 = map { $_->{filename} } @{$sftp->ls('.')};
$sftp->find($path, %opts)
$sftp->find(\@paths, %opts)

Does a recursive search over the given directory $path (or directories @path) and returns a list of the entries found or the total number of them on scalar context.

Every entry is a reference to a hash with two keys: filename, the full path of the entry; and a, a Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes object containing file atime, mtime, permissions and size.

This method tries to recover and continue under error conditions.

The options accepted:

on_error => sub { ... }

the callback is called when some error is detected, two arguments are passed: the $sftp object and the entry that was being processed when the error happened. For instance:

  my @find = $sftp->find( '/',
                          on_error => sub {
                              my ($sftp, $e) = @_;
                              print STDERR "error processing $e->{filename}: "
                                   . $sftp->error;
                          } );
realpath => 1

calls method realpath for every entry, the result is stored under the key realpath. This option slows down the process as a new remote query is performed for every entry, specially on networks with high latency.

follow_links => 1

By default symbolic links are not resolved and appear as that on the final listing. This option causes then to be resolved and substituted by the target file system object. Dangling links are ignored, though they generate a call to the on_error callback when stat fails on them.

Following symbolic links can introduce loops on the search. Infinite loops are detected and broken but files can still appear repeated on the final listing under different names unless the option realpath is also active.

ordered => 1

By default, the file system is searched in an implementation dependent order (actually optimized for low memory consumption). If this option is included, the file system is searched in a deep-first, sorted by filename fashion.

wanted => qr/.../
wanted => sub { ... }
no_wanted => qr/.../
no_wanted => sub { ... }

These options have the same effect as on the ls method, allowing to filter out unwanted entries (note that filename keys contain full paths here).

The callbacks can also be used to perform some action instead of creating the full listing of entries in memory (that could use huge amounts of RAM for big file trees):

  $sftp->find($src_dir,
              wanted => sub {
                  my $fn = $_[1]->{filename}
                  print "$fn\n" if $fn =~ /\.p[ml]$/;
                  return undef # so it is discarded
              });
descend => qr/.../
descend => sub { ... }
no_descend => qr/.../
no_descend => sub { ... }

These options, similar to the wanted ones, allow to prune the search, discarding full subdirectories. For instance:

    use Fcntl ':mode';
    my @files = $sftp->find( '.',
                             no_descend => qr/\.svn$/,
                             wanted => sub {
                                 S_ISREG($_[1]->{a}->perm)
                             } );

descend and wanted rules are unrelated. A directory discarded by a wanted rule will still be recursively searched unless it is also discarded on a descend rule and vice versa.

atomic_readdir => 1

see ls method documentation.

names_only => 1

makes the method return a list with the names of the files only (see ls method documentation).

equivalent:

  my $ls1 = $sftp->ls('.', names_only => 1);
$sftp->glob($pattern, %opts)

performs a remote glob and returns the list of matching entries in the same format as the "find" method.

This method tries to recover and continue under error conditions.

The given pattern can be a UNIX style pattern (see glob(7)) or a Regexp object (i.e qr/foo/). In the later case, only files on the current working directory will be matched against the Regexp.

Accepted options:

ignore_case => 1

by default the matching over the file system is carried out in a case sensitive fashion, this flag changes it to be case insensitive.

This flag is ignored when a Regexp object is used as the pattern.

strict_leading_dot => 0

by default, a dot character at the beginning of a file or directory name is not matched by wildcards (* or ?). Setting this flags to a false value changes this behaviour.

This flag is ignored when a Regexp object is used as the pattern.

follow_links => 1
ordered => 1
names_only => 1
realpath => 1
on_error => sub { ... }
wanted => ...
no_wanted => ...

these options perform as on the ls method.

Some usage samples:

  my $files = $sftp->glob("*/lib");

  my $files = $sftp->glob("/var/log/dmesg.*.gz");

  $sftp->set_cwd("/var/log");
  my $files = $sftp->glob(qr/^dmesg\.[\d+]\.gz$/);

  my $files = $sftp->glob("*/*.pdf", strict_leading_dot => 0);
$sftp->rget($remote, $local, %opts)

Recursively copies the contents of remote directory $remote to local directory $local. Returns the total number of elements (files, directories and symbolic links) successfully copied.

This method tries to recover and continue when some error happens.

The options accepted are:

umask => $umask

use umask $umask to set permissions on the files and directories created.

copy_perm => $bool;

if set to a true value, file and directory permissions are copied to the remote server (after applying the umask). On by default.

copy_time => $bool;

if set to a true value, file atime and mtime are copied from the remote server. By default it is on.

overwrite => $bool

if set to a true value, when a local file with the same name already exists it is overwritten. On by default.

numbered => $bool

when required, adds a sequence number to local file names in order to avoid overwriting pre-existent remote files. Off by default.

newer_only => $bool

if set to a true value, when a local file with the same name already exists it is overwritten only if the remote file is newer.

ignore_links => $bool

if set to a true value, symbolic links are not copied.

on_error => sub { ... }

the passed sub is called when some error happens. It is called with two arguments, the $sftp object and the entry causing the error.

wanted => ...
no_wanted => ...

This option allows one to select which files and directories have to be copied. See also ls method docs.

If a directory is discarded all of its contents are also discarded (as it is not possible to copy child files without creating the directory first!).

atomic => 1
block_size => $block_size
queue_size => $queue_size
conversion => $conversion
resume => $resume
best_effort => $best_effort

See get method docs.

$sftp->rput($local, $remote, %opts)

Recursively copies the contents of local directory $local to remote directory $remote.

This method tries to recover and continue when some error happens.

Accepted options are:

umask => $umask

use umask $umask to set permissions on the files and directories created.

copy_perm => $bool;

if set to a true value, file and directory permissions are copied to the remote server (after applying the umask). On by default.

copy_time => $bool;

if set to a true value, file atime and mtime are copied to the remote server. On by default.

overwrite => $bool

if set to a true value, when a remote file with the same name already exists it is overwritten. On by default.

newer_only => $bool

if set to a true value, when a remote file with the same name already exists it is overwritten only if the local file is newer.

ignore_links => $bool

if set to a true value, symbolic links are not copied

on_error => sub { ... }

the passed sub is called when some error happens. It is called with two arguments, the $sftp object and the entry causing the error.

wanted => ...
no_wanted => ...

This option allows one to select which files and directories have to be copied. See also ls method docs.

If a directory is discarded all of its contents are also discarded (as it is not possible to copy child files without creating the directory first!).

atomic => 1
block_size => $block_size
queue_size => $queue_size
conversion => $conversion
resume => $resume
best_effort => $best_effort
late_set_perm => $bool

see put method docs.

$sftp->rremove($dir, %opts)
$sftp->rremove(\@dirs, %opts)

recursively remove directory $dir (or directories @dirs) and its contents. Returns the number of elements successfully removed.

This method tries to recover and continue when some error happens.

The options accepted are:

on_error => sub { ... }

This callback is called when some error is occurs. The arguments passed are the $sftp object and the current entry (see ls docs for more information).

wanted => ...
no_wanted => ...

Allow to select which file system objects have to be deleted.

$sftp->mget($remote, $localdir, %opts)
$sftp->mget(\@remote, $localdir, %opts)

expands the wildcards on $remote or @remote and retrieves all the matching files.

For instance:

  $sftp->mget(['/etc/hostname.*', '/etc/init.d/*'], '/tmp');

The method accepts all the options valid for "glob" and for "get" (except those that do not make sense :-)

$localdir is optional and defaults to the process current working directory (cwd).

Files are saved with the same name they have in the remote server excluding the directory parts.

Note that name collisions are not detected. For instance:

 $sftp->mget(["foo/file.txt", "bar/file.txt"], "/tmp")

will transfer the first file to "/tmp/file.txt" and later overwrite it with the second one. The numbered option can be used to avoid this issue.

$sftp->mput($local, $remotedir, %opts)
$sftp->mput(\@local, $remotedir, %opts)

similar to "mget" but works in the opposite direction transferring files from the local side to the remote one.

$sftp->join(@paths)

returns the given path fragments joined in one path (currently the remote file system is expected to be UNIX like).

$sftp->open($path, $flags [, $attrs ])

Sends the SSH_FXP_OPEN command to open a remote file $path, and returns an open handle on success. On failure returns undef.

The returned value is a tied handle (see Tie::Handle) that can be used to access the remote file both with the methods available from this module and with perl built-ins. For instance:

  # reading from the remote file
  my $fh1 = $sftp->open("/etc/passwd")
    or die $sftp->error;
  while (<$fh1>) { ... }

  # writing to the remote file
  use Net::SFTP::Foreign::Constants qw(:flags);
  my $fh2 = $sftp->open("/foo/bar", SSH2_FXF_WRITE|SSH2_FXF_CREAT)
    or die $sftp->error;
  print $fh2 "printing on the remote file\n";
  $sftp->write($fh2, "writing more");

The $flags bitmap determines how to open the remote file as defined in the SFTP protocol draft (the following constants can be imported from Net::SFTP::Foreign::Constants):

SSH2_FXF_READ

Open the file for reading. It is the default mode.

SSH2_FXF_WRITE

Open the file for writing. If both this and SSH2_FXF_READ are specified, the file is opened for both reading and writing.

SSH2_FXF_APPEND

Force all writes to append data at the end of the file.

As OpenSSH SFTP server implementation ignores this flag, the module emulates it (I will appreciate receiving feedback about the inter-operation of this module with other server implementations when this flag is used).

SSH2_FXF_CREAT

If this flag is specified, then a new file will be created if one does not already exist.

SSH2_FXF_TRUNC

Forces an existing file with the same name to be truncated to zero length when creating a file. SSH2_FXF_CREAT must also be specified if this flag is used.

SSH2_FXF_EXCL

Causes the request to fail if the named file already exists. SSH2_FXF_CREAT must also be specified if this flag is used.

When creating a new remote file, $attrs allows one to set its initial attributes. $attrs has to be an object of class Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes.

$sftp->close($handle)

Closes the remote file handle $handle.

Files are automatically closed on the handle DESTROY method when not done explicitly.

Returns true on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->read($handle, $length)

reads $length bytes from an open file handle $handle. On success returns the data read from the remote file and undef on failure (including EOF).

$sftp->write($handle, $data)

writes $data to the remote file $handle. Returns the number of bytes written or undef on failure.

$sftp->readline($handle)
$sftp->readline($handle, $sep)

in scalar context reads and returns the next line from the remote file. In list context, it returns all the lines from the current position to the end of the file.

By default "\n" is used as the separator between lines, but a different one can be used passing it as the second method argument. If the empty string is used, it returns all the data from the current position to the end of the file as one line.

$sftp->getc($handle)

returns the next character from the file.

$sftp->seek($handle, $pos, $whence)

sets the current position for the remote file handle $handle. If $whence is 0, the position is set relative to the beginning of the file; if $whence is 1, position is relative to current position and if $<$whence> is 2, position is relative to the end of the file.

returns a trues value on success, undef on failure.

$sftp->tell($fh)

returns the current position for the remote file handle $handle.

$sftp->eof($fh)

reports whether the remote file handler points at the end of the file.

$sftp->flush($fh)

writes to the remote file any pending data and discards the read cache.

$sftp->sftpread($handle, $offset, $length)

low level method that sends a SSH2_FXP_READ request to read from an open file handle $handle, $length bytes starting at $offset.

Returns the data read on success and undef on failure.

Some servers (for instance OpenSSH SFTP server) limit the size of the read requests and so the length of data returned can be smaller than requested.

$sftp->sftpwrite($handle, $offset, $data)

low level method that sends a SSH_FXP_WRITE request to write to an open file handle $handle, starting at $offset, and where the data to be written is in $data.

Returns true on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->opendir($path)

Sends a SSH_FXP_OPENDIR command to open the remote directory $path, and returns an open handle on success (unfortunately, current versions of perl does not support directory operations via tied handles, so it is not possible to use the returned handle as a native one).

On failure returns undef.

$sftp->closedir($handle)

closes the remote directory handle $handle.

Directory handles are closed from their DESTROY method when not done explicitly.

Return true on success, undef on failure.

$sftp->readdir($handle)

returns the next entry from the remote directory $handle (or all the remaining entries when called in list context).

The return values are a hash with three keys: filename, longname and a. The a value contains a Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes object describing the entry.

Returns undef on error or when no more entries exist on the directory.

$sftp->stat($path_or_fh)

performs a stat on the remote file and returns a Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes object with the result values. Both paths and open remote file handles can be passed to this method.

Returns undef on failure.

$sftp->fstat($handle)

this method is deprecated.

$sftp->lstat($path)

this method is similar to stat method but stats a symbolic link instead of the file the symbolic links points to.

$sftp->setstat($path_or_fh, $attrs)

sets file attributes on the remote file. Accepts both paths and open remote file handles.

Returns true on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->fsetstat($handle, $attrs)

this method is deprecated.

$sftp->truncate($path_or_fh, $size)
$sftp->chown($path_or_fh, $uid, $gid)
$sftp->chmod($path_or_fh, $perm)
$sftp->utime($path_or_fh, $atime, $mtime)

Shortcuts around setstat method.

$sftp->remove($path)

Sends a SSH_FXP_REMOVE command to remove the remote file $path. Returns a true value on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->mkdir($path)
$sftp->mkdir($path, $attrs)

Sends a SSH_FXP_MKDIR command to create a remote directory $path whose attributes are initialized to $attrs (a Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes object) if given.

Returns a true value on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->mkpath($path)
$sftp->mkpath($path, $attrs)

This method is similar to mkdir but also creates any non-existent parent directories recursively.

$sftp->rmdir($path)

Sends a SSH_FXP_RMDIR command to remove a remote directory $path. Returns a true value on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->realpath($path)

Sends a SSH_FXP_REALPATH command to canonicalise $path to an absolute path. This can be useful for turning paths containing '..' into absolute paths.

Returns the absolute path on success, undef on failure.

$sftp->rename($old, $new, %opts)

Sends a SSH_FXP_RENAME command to rename $old to $new. Returns a true value on success and undef on failure.

Accepted options are:

overwrite => $bool

By default, the rename operation fails when a file $new already exists. When this options is set, any previous existent file is deleted first (the atomic_rename operation will be used if available).

Note than under some conditions the target file could be deleted and afterwards the rename operation fail.

$sftp->atomic_rename($old, $new)

Renames a file using the posix-rename@openssh.com extension when available.

Unlike the rename method, it overwrites any previous $new file.

$sftp->readlink($path)

Sends a SSH_FXP_READLINK command to read the path where the symbolic link is pointing.

Returns the target path on success and undef on failure.

$sftp->symlink($sl, $target)

Sends a SSH_FXP_SYMLINK command to create a new symbolic link $sl pointing to $target.

$target is stored as-is, without any path expansion taken place on it. Use realpath to normalize it:

  $sftp->symlink("foo.lnk" => $sftp->realpath("../bar"))
$sftp->hardlink($hl, $target)

Creates a hardlink on the server.

This command requires support for the 'hardlink@openssh.com' extension on the server (available in OpenSSH from version 5.7).

$sftp->statvfs($path)
$sftp->fstatvfs($fh)

On servers supporting statvfs@openssh.com and fstatvfs@openssh.com extensions respectively, these methods return a hash reference with information about the file system where the file named $path or the open file $fh resides.

The hash entries are:

  bsize   => file system block size
  frsize  => fundamental fs block size
  blocks  => number of blocks (unit f_frsize)
  bfree   => free blocks in file system
  bavail  => free blocks for non-root
  files   => total file inodes
  ffree   => free file inodes
  favail  => free file inodes for to non-root
  fsid    => file system id
  flag    => bit mask of f_flag values
  namemax => maximum filename length

The values of the f_flag bit mask are as follows:

  SSH2_FXE_STATVFS_ST_RDONLY => read-only
  SSH2_FXE_STATVFS_ST_NOSUID => no setuid
$sftp->disconnect

Closes the SSH connection to the remote host. From this point the object becomes mostly useless.

Usually, this method should not be called explicitly, but implicitly from the DESTROY method when the object goes out of scope.

See also the documentation for the autodiscconnect constructor argument.

$sftp->autodisconnect($ad)

Sets the autodisconnect behaviour.

See also the documentation for the autodiscconnect constructor argument. The values accepted here are the same as there.

On the fly data conversion

Some of the methods on this module allow to perform on the fly data conversion via the conversion option that accepts the following values:

conversion => 'dos2unix'

Converts CR+LF line endings (as commonly used under MS-DOS) to LF (UNIX).

conversion => 'unix2dos'

Converts LF line endings (UNIX) to CR+LF (DOS).

conversion => sub { CONVERT $_[0] }

When a callback is given, it is invoked repeatedly as chunks of data become available. It has to change $_[0] in place in order to perform the conversion.

Also, the subroutine is called one last time with and empty data string to indicate that the transfer has finished, so that intermediate buffers can be flushed.

Note that when writing conversion subroutines, special care has to be taken to handle sequences crossing chunk borders.

The data conversion is always performed before any other callback subroutine is called.

See the Wikipedia entry on line endings http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newline or the article Understanding Newlines by Xavier Noria (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2006/08/17/understanding-newlines.html) for details about the different conventions.

FAQ ^

Closing the connection:

Q: How do I close the connection to the remote server?

A: let the $sftp object go out of scope or just undefine it:

  undef $sftp;
Using Net::SFTP::Foreign from a cron script:

Q: I wrote a script for performing sftp file transfers that works beautifully from the command line. However when I try to run the same script from cron it fails with a broken pipe error:

  open2: exec of ssh -l user some.location.com -s sftp
    failed at Net/SFTP/Foreign.pm line 67

A: ssh is not on your cron PATH.

The remedy is either to add the location of the ssh application to your cron PATH or to use the ssh_cmd option of the new method to hardcode the location of ssh inside your script, for instance:

  my $ssh = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
                                    ssh_cmd => '/usr/local/ssh/bin/ssh');
more constructor option expects an array reference:

Q: I'm trying to pass in the private key file using the -i option, but it keep saying it couldn't find the key. What I'm doing wrong?

A: The more argument on the constructor expects a single option or a reference to an array of options. It will not split an string containing several options.

Arguments to SSH options have to be also passed as different entries on the array:

  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
                                      more => [qw(-i /home/foo/.ssh/id_dsa)]);

Note also that latest versions of Net::SFTP::Foreign support the key_path argument:

  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
                                      key_path => '/home/foo/.ssh/id_dsa');
Plink and password authentication

Q: Why password authentication is not supported for the plink SSH client?

A: A bug in plink breaks it.

Newer versions of Net::SFTP::Foreign pass the password to plink using its -pw option. As this feature is not completely secure a warning is generated.

It can be silenced (though, don't do it without understanding why it is there, please!) as follows:

  no warnings 'Net::SFTP::Foreign';
  my $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new('foo@bar',
                                     ssh_cmd => 'plink',
                                     password => $password);
  $sftp->die_on_error;
Plink

Q: What is plink?

A: Plink is a command line tool distributed with the PuTTY SSH client. Very popular between MS Windows users, it is also available for Linux and other UNIX now.

Put method fails

Q: put fails with the following error:

  Couldn't setstat remote file: The requested operation cannot be
  performed because there is a file transfer in progress.

A: Try passing the late_set_perm option to the put method:

  $sftp->put($local, $remote, late_set_perm => 1)
     or die "unable to transfer file: " . $sftp->error;

Some servers do not support the fsetstat operation on open file handles. Setting this flag allows one to delay that operation until the file has been completely transferred and the remote file handle closed.

Also, send me a bug report containing a dump of your $sftp object so I can add code for your particular server software to activate the work-around automatically.

Put method fails even with late_set_perm set

Q: I added late_set_perm => 1 to the put call, but we are still receiving the error Couldn't setstat remote file (setstat).

A: Some servers forbid the SFTP setstat operation used by the put method for replicating the file permissions and time-stamps on the remote side.

As a work around you can just disable the feature:

  $sftp->put($local_file, $remote_file,
             copy_perms => 0, copy_time => 0);
Disable password authentication completely

Q: When we try to open a session and the key either doesn't exist or is invalid, the child SSH hangs waiting for a password to be entered. Is there a way to make this fail back to the Perl program to be handled?

A: Disable anything but public key SSH authentication calling the new method as follows:

  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
                more => [qw(-o PreferredAuthentications=publickey)])

See ssh_config(5) for the details.

Understanding $attr->perm bits

Q: How can I know if a directory entry is a (directory|link|file|...)?

A: Use the S_IS* functions from Fcntl. For instance:

  use Fcntl qw(S_ISDIR);
  my $ls = $sftp->ls or die $sftp->error;
  for my $entry (@$ls) {
    if (S_ISDIR($entry->{a}->perm)) {
      print "$entry->{filename} is a directory\n";
    }
  }
Host key checking

Q: Connecting to a remote server with password authentication fails with the following error:

  The authenticity of the target host can not be established,
  connect from the command line first

A: That probably means that the public key from the remote server is not stored in the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. Run an SSH Connection from the command line as the same user as the script and answer yes when asked to confirm the key supplied.

Example:

  $ ssh pluto /bin/true
  The authenticity of host 'pluto (172.25.1.4)' can't be established.
  RSA key fingerprint is 41:b1:a7:86:d2:a9:7b:b0:7f:a1:00:b7:26:51:76:52.
  Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes

Your SSH client may also support some flag to disable this check, but doing it can ruin the security of the SSH protocol so I advise against its usage.

Example:

  # Warning: don't do that unless you fully understand
  # its security implications!!!
  $sftp = Net::SFTP::Foreign->new($host,
                                  more => [-o => 'StrictHostKeyChecking no'],
                                  ...);

BUGS ^

These are the currently known bugs:

- Doesn't work on VMS:

The problem is related to IPC::Open3 not working on VMS. Patches are welcome!

- Dirty cleanup:

On some operating systems, closing the pipes used to communicate with the slave SSH process does not terminate it and a work around has to be applied. If you find that your scripts hung when the $sftp object gets out of scope, try setting $Net::SFTP::Foreign::dirty_cleanup to a true value and also send me a report including the value of $^O on your machine and the OpenSSH version.

From version 0.90_18 upwards, a dirty cleanup is performed anyway when the SSH process does not terminate by itself in 8 seconds or less.

- Reversed symlink arguments:

This package uses the non-conforming OpenSSH argument order for the SSH_FXP_SYMLINK command that seems to be the de facto standard. When interacting with SFTP servers that follow the SFTP specification, the symlink method will interpret its arguments in reverse order.

- IPC::Open3 bugs on Windows

On Windows the IPC::Open3 module is used to spawn the slave SSH process. That module has several nasty bugs (related to STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR being closed or not being assigned to file descriptors 0, 1 and 2 respectively) that will cause the connection to fail.

Specifically this is known to happen under mod_perl/mod_perl2.

Also, the following features should be considered experimental:

- support for Tectia server

- numbered feature

- autodie mode

- best_effort feature

SUPPORT ^

To report bugs, send me and email or use the CPAN bug tracking system at http://rt.cpan.org.

Commercial support

Commercial support, professional services and custom software development around this module are available through my current company. Drop me an email with a rough description of your requirements and we will get back to you ASAP.

My wishlist

If you like this module and you're feeling generous, take a look at my Amazon Wish List: http://amzn.com/w/1WU1P6IR5QZ42

Also consider contributing to the OpenSSH project this module builds upon: http://www.openssh.org/donations.html.

SEE ALSO ^

Information about the constants used on this module is available from Net::SFTP::Foreign::Constants. Information about attribute objects is available from Net::SFTP::Foreign::Attributes.

General information about SSH and the OpenSSH implementation is available from the OpenSSH web site at http://www.openssh.org/ and from the sftp(1) and sftp-server(8) manual pages.

Net::SFTP::Foreign integrates nicely with my other module Net::OpenSSH.

Net::SFTP::Foreign::Backend::Net_SSH2 allows one to run Net::SFTP::Foreign on top of Net::SSH2 (nowadays, this combination is probably the best option under Windows).

Modules offering similar functionality available from CPAN are Net::SFTP and Net::SSH2.

Test::SFTP allows one to run tests against a remote SFTP server.

autodie.

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2005-2013 Salvador Fandiño (sfandino@yahoo.com).

Copyright (c) 2001 Benjamin Trott, Copyright (c) 2003 David Rolsky.

_glob_to_regex method based on code (c) 2002 Richard Clamp.

All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

The full text of the license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.

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