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NAME ^

Makefile.PL - Generate makefiles for Filter-Crypto distribution

SYNOPSIS ^

    Makefile.PL [--defaults]
                [--prefix-dir=<dir>]
                [--cipher-config=<file>]
                [--cipher-name=<name>] [--cipher-mode=<mode>]
                [--pswd={<pswd>|rand} | --key={<key>|rand}] [--rng=<rng>]
                [--key-len=<len>]
                [--rc2-key-bits=<num>] [--rc5-rounds=<num>]
                [--install-script={y|n}>
                [--build=<component>] [--unsafe-mode] [--debug-mode]
                [--version] [--help] [--manpage]
                [<arg>...]

ARGUMENTS ^

Any standard ExtUtils::MakeMaker command-line arguments may be specified, but note that the guts of this distribution is contained in two modules located in their own sub-directories with their own Makefile.PLs and not all ExtUtils::MakeMaker arguments are necessarily passed through to such sub-directory builds.

In particular, you should not rely on the INC and LIBS arguments for specifying the location of the OpenSSL or SSLeay include and library directory paths. Instead, use the --prefix-dir option described below if the default value does not match your system.

ExtUtils::MakeMaker arguments can also be given in the PERL_MM_OPTS environment variable as usual.

OPTIONS ^

Any standard Module::AutoInstall command-line options may be specified. These can also be given in the PERL_AUTOINSTALL environment variable as usual.

In addition, the build process for this distribution requires the answers to various questions regarding (amongst other things) the location of OpenSSL or SSLeay, which cipher algorithm to use, what password or key to use and whether to install a script.

The command-line options detailed below can be used to provide the answers to these questions.

If a particular question is not answered via the relevant command-line option then Makefile.PL will normally prompt the user for the answer. However, if it detects that it is not being run interactively and there is nothing on STDIN, or if your ExtUtils::MakeMaker is version 5.48_01 or later and either the PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT environment variable is set to a true value or the --defaults option is specified, then the default value indicated below in the description of the option concerned will be used instead and no questions will be asked.

--defaults

Specify that the default value indicated below of each option that is not specified by the relevant command-line option will be used instead of prompting the user for a response.

You must be using ExtUtils::MakeMaker version 5.48_01 or later for this option to have any effect.

-d <dir>, --prefix-dir=<dir>

Specify the OpenSSL or SSLeay prefix directory. This is used to determine the include and library directories.

By default, Makefile.PL will look for an openssl or ssleay binary executable and determine the prefix directory from that. Failing that, the default prefix directory as specified in the latest OpenSSL's own INSTALL file will be assumed, namely /usr/local/ssl, or C:\openssl on "native" (i.e. non-Cygwin) Windows platforms.

-c <file>, --cipher-config=<file>

Specify the cipher configuration file with which to build. This should be a file written by a previous run of Makefile.PL containing the answers to all the cipher configuration questions, which therefore will not be asked this time. Any cipher configuration options specified along with this option will be ignored.

This is useful if you ever need to rebuild this distribution using the same configuration as was used on a previous occasion, for example, if you are setting up two separate Perl installations, one containing the Filter::Crypto::CryptFile module and another containing only the Filter::Crypto::Decrypt module, as described under the --build option above.

-n <name>, --cipher-name=<name>

Specify the name of the cipher algorithm to use. The ciphers available will be a subset of the following (depending on which version of OpenSSL or SSLeay you are using and whether any of them were disabled when it was built):

    DES      (A block cipher with fixed key length)
    DES_EDE  (A block cipher with fixed key length)
    DES_EDE3 (A block cipher with fixed key length)
    RC4      (A stream cipher with variable key length)
    IDEA     (A block cipher with fixed key length)
    RC2      (A block cipher with variable key length)
    DESX     (A block cipher with fixed key length)
    Blowfish (A block cipher with variable key length)
    Null     (The null cipher with zero key length)
    RC5      (A block cipher with variable key length)
    CAST5    (A block cipher with variable key length)
    AES      (A block cipher with variable key length)

The default cipher is AES if it is available, or else DES_EDE3 if that is available, or else whichever one nearest the end of the list above is available.

-m <mode>, --cipher-mode=<mode>

Specify the mode of operation if a block cipher was chosen above. The following modes are available:

    ECB (Electronic Codebook Mode)
    CBC (Cipher Block Chaining Mode)
    CFB (64-Bit Cipher Feedback Mode)
    OFB (64-Bit Output Feedback Mode)

The CBC mode is used by default.

This option is ignored for the DESX block cipher (which is only available in CBC mode) and for the stream cipher(s) and the null cipher.

-p {<pswd>|rand}, --pswd={<pswd>|rand}

Specify the password from which to derive the key used for the encryption or decryption. (This is known as "password-based encryption" (PBE).) The special value "rand" means that a 32-byte password will be randomly generated using the random number generator specified by the --rng option.

The key will be derived using the PBKDF2 algorithm defined in PKCS#5 v2.0 (which is also available as RFC2898) if you have OpenSSL 0.9.4 or later. This is not available in earlier versions of OpenSSL or SSLeay so in those cases a different algorithm, largely compatible with PKCS#5 v1.5, is used instead. In either case an 8-byte random salt and 2048 iterations are used. A random initialization vector (IV) is also generated if required. When encrypting, both the salt and IV are prepended to the ciphertext so that they may be recovered for use when decrypting.

Alternatively, the key may be specified directly (or randomly generated) using the --key option below. If both options are given then --pswd is used and --key is silently ignored.

Note that password-based encryption is preferable to using a fixed key if you are going to be encrypting many files because the key used in the PBE scheme will be different for each file that you encrypt because it is derived afresh for each file using a new random salt. (This, of course, is exactly the point of the salt.) Using the same key repeatedly is vulnerable to "dictionary attacks", particularly if part of the files being encrypted is known or predictable, for example, a header section like that used at the top of the source files in this distribution.

A randomly generated password is used by default.

-k {<key>|rand}, --key={<key>|rand}

Specify the key if anything other than the null cipher was chosen above. The special value "rand" means that a key of the appropriate length will be randomly generated using the random number generator specified by the --rng option.

If a key length is also specified using the --key-len option below, or if you have chosen a fixed key length cipher or are using something earlier than OpenSSL 0.9.6 (with which the variable key length ciphers can only be used with their default key lengths), then the length of any key specified here must match the relevant key length.

An N-byte key must be specified as a string of 2*N hexadecimal digits where each pair of such digits represents one byte of the key (with the high nybble first). This is the format produced by Perl's built-in unpack() function with the 'H' template character, i.e.

    $hexdigits = unpack 'H*', $bytes;

The key specified (or randomly generated) by this option is used directly without being processed by any key derivation algorithm. For password-based encryption, use the --pswd option above. If both options are given then --pswd is used and --key is silently ignored.

Note that password-based encryption is preferable to using a fixed key if you are going to be encrypting many files. See the description of the --pswd option above for an explanation.

A randomly generated password [sic] is used by default.

-r <rng>, --rng=<rng>

Specify the random number generator (RNG) with which to generate the password or key if the option to have one of them randomly generated was chosen above. Valid RNGs are:

    Perl          - Use perl's built-in rand() function
    Crypt::Random - Use the Crypt::Random Perl module
    Math::Random  - Use the Math::Random Perl module
    OpenSSL       - Use openssl's "rand" command

Note that not all of these options may be available: Crypt::Random and Math::Random are not standard Perl modules, and only OpenSSL 0.9.5a or later have a rand command.

The default RNG is whichever one nearest the end of the list above is available.

This option is silently ignored if a randomly generated password or key was not chosen.

-l <len>, --key-len=<len>

Specify the key length (in bytes) if a variable key length cipher was chosen above. Valid key lengths are as follows:

    RC4      - From 1 byte upwards
    RC2      - From 1 byte up to 128 bytes
    Blowfish - From 1 byte up to 72 bytes
    RC5      - From 0 bytes up to 255 bytes
    CAST5    - From 5 bytes up to 16 bytes
    AES      - Either 16, 24 or 32 bytes

The default key length is 16 bytes for each cipher except AES, which defaults to 32 bytes, unless a key is specified using the --key option above in which case the key length is inferred from that.

Note that this option can only be used to change the default key length if you have OpenSSL version 0.9.6 or later because the facility for setting key lengths was only added to the EVP library API used by this software in version 0.9.6. The default key length will always be used with earlier versions of OpenSSL or SSLeay.

The key length of the fixed key length ciphers, of course, cannot be changed using this or any other option, whatever version of OpenSSL or SSLeay you have, but here are the key lengths used by those ciphers for reference purposes when manually creating the key itself if you choose to do so:

    DES      - 8 bytes
    DES_EDE  - 16 bytes
    DES_EDE3 - 24 bytes
    IDEA     - 16 bytes
    DESX     - 24 bytes
    Null     - 0 bytes
--rc2-key-bits=<num>

Specify the effective key bits value (in bits) if the RC2 cipher was chosen above. Valid values are from 1 bit up to 1024 bits.

The default value is 128 bits.

Note that, as for the --key-len option above, this option can only be used to change the default value if you have OpenSSL 0.9.6 or later.

This option is silently ignored if the RC2 cipher was not chosen.

--rc5-rounds=<num>

Specify the number of rounds if the RC5 cipher was chosen above. Valid values are 8, 12 and 16.

The default value is 12 rounds.

Note that, as for the --key-len option above, this option can only be used to change the default value if you have OpenSSL 0.9.6 or later.

This option is silently ignored if the RC5 cipher was not chosen.

-i {y|n}, --install-script={y|n}

Specify whether or not to install the crypt_file script.

The script is installed by default unless the --build option is set to "Decrypt" (in which case the Filter::Crypto::CryptFile module, which the crypt_file script uses, does not get built so there would be no point in installing the script).

-b <component>, --build=<component>

Specify which component ("CryptFile", "Decrypt" or "both") to build. This determines which of the two C extension modules (Filter::Crypto::CryptFile, Filter::Crypto::Decrypt or both) is built.

By default, both components are built.

However, building only one component may be useful if you want to maintain two separate Perl installations: one containing the Filter::Crypto::CryptFile module to be used for encrypting your Perl files, and another containing only the Filter::Crypto::Decrypt module for distributing with your encrypted Perl files so that they can be run but not easily decrypted. (Well, not very easily, anyway. Please see the "WARNING" in Filter::Crypto regarding the level of security provided for your source code by this software.)

If you are going to set-up two such Perl installations then clearly you will need to ensure that the components of this distribution installed into each one were built with the same cipher configuration options, otherwise the files encrypted by one cannot be decrypted by the other. The --cipher-config option below may assist in this.

-u, --unsafe-mode

Specify that the "Decrypt" component should be built in an "unsafe" mode in which the Perl compiler backend modules are allowed to be loaded.

By default, the "Decrypt" component contains a check to try to disallow running under the Perl compiler backend, which works by simply checking whether any of the relevant modules have been loaded.

Unfortunately, that logic can be unhelpful in certain cases where those modules are quite legitimately loaded. One example is when code is running in a mod_perl environment with the Apache::Status module loaded. Another example is when a script that uses an encrypted module is being packaged with PAR: the PAR packager will not pick up any dependencies that the encrypted module has unless it compiles or executes the module (via pp's -c or -x options), and the Perl compiler backend modules are also loaded during that process.

Note that the existence of this --unsafe-mode option should not be taken to imply that omitting it produces a decryption environment that is entirely "safe". Even without the --unsafe-mode option it will still be possible for some hackers to make use of the Perl compiler backend modules, and there are also other security issues anyway. Please see the "WARNING" in Filter::Crypto for more details.

--debug-mode

Specify that the modules should be built in "debug" mode. In this mode, all of the checks described in the "WARNING" in Filter::Crypto are disabled and lots of output is written to STDERR describing what is going on during the encryption or decryption.

By default, the modules are not built in "debug" mode.

-v, --version

Display the script name and version, and then exit.

-h, --help | --?

Display a help page listing the arguments and options, and then exit.

--manpage | --doc

Display the entire manual page, and then exit.

Options may be introduced with a double dash, a single dash, a plus sign or (on Win32) a forward slash; case does not matter; an equals sign may be used or omitted between option names and values; long option names may be abbreviated to uniqueness.

Options may also be placed between non-option arguments, and option processing may be stopped at any point in the command-line by inserting a double dash.

EXIT STATUS ^

    0   The script exited normally.

    1   The script exited after printing the version, help or manpage.

    2   Invalid command-line arguments.

    >2  An error occurred.

DIAGNOSTICS ^

Warnings and Error Messages

This script may produce the following diagnostic messages. They are classified as follows (a la perldiag):

    (W) A warning (optional).
    (F) A fatal error (trappable).
    (I) An internal error that you should never see (trappable).
Can't load %s module for random number generation

(F) The specified module could not be loaded and therefore could not be used as the random number generator (RNG). Make sure that the module concerned is properly installed or use one of the other RNGs instead.

Could not copy configuration file '%s' to '%s': %s

(F) The specified configuration file (i.e. the file given by the --cipher-config option) could not be copied to the specified location (from which it is included in this distribution's build process). The system error message corresponding to the standard C library errno variable is also given.

Could not generate %d random bytes (%d): %s

(F) The specified number of random bytes (to be used as the password or key) could not be generated using the OpenSSL binary executable. The exit code and the output from the program are also given.

Could not get %s version information (%d): %s

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay version information could not be got from the binary executable. The exit code and the output from the program are also given.

Could not open configuration file '%s' for writing: %s

(F) The specified configuration file could not be opened to write the chosen cipher configuration options to. The system error message corresponding to the standard C library errno variable is also given.

Could not open random bytes output file '%s' for reading: %s

(F) The specified file containing the random bytes generated by the OpenSSL binary executable for use as the password or key could not be opened for reading. The system error message corresponding to the standard C library errno variable is also given.

Could not open version number header file '%s' for reading: %s

(F) The specified OpenSSL or SSLeay header file containing the package's version number could not be opened for reading. The system error message corresponding to the standard C library errno variable is also given.

Could not read random bytes from output file '%s': %s

(F) The random bytes generated by the OpenSSL binary executable for use as the password or key could not be read from the specified file. The system error message corresponding to the standard C library errno variable is also given.

Could not read random bytes from output file '%s': %d bytes read, %d bytes expected

(F) The string of random bytes generated by the OpenSSL binary executable for use as the password or key and read from the specified file was not of the expected length.

Invalid 'build' option value '%s'

(F) The specified build option value (i.e. the value given by the --build option) is not valid.

Invalid default response '%s'

(I) The method called internally to prompt the user for some input was passed a default response that was not valid itself.

Invalid 'install_script' option value '%s'

(I) The method called internally to determine whether to install the crypt_file script was passed an option value that it did not recognize.

Invalid key '%s'

(F) The specified key (i.e. the key given by the --key option) is not valid.

Invalid key length '%d'

(F) The specified key length (i.e. the length given by the --key-length option) is not valid.

Invalid length key (%d)

(F) The inferred key length (i.e. the length inferred from the key given by the --key option) is not valid.

Invalid password '%s'

(F) The specified password (i.e. the password given by the --pswd option) is not valid.

Invalid random number generator '%s'

(F) The specified random number generator (i.e. the value given by the --rng option) is not valid.

Invalid RC2 key bits '%d'

(F) The specified RC2 key bits value (i.e. the value given by the --rc2-key-bits option) is not valid.

Invalid RC5 rounds '%d'

(F) The specified RC5 rounds value (i.e. the value given by the --rc5-rounds option) is not valid.

Invalid response

(W) The response supplied by the user to an interactive prompt was not valid. The user will be prompted again until a valid response is supplied.

No binary executable found

(F) The main OpenSSL or SSLeay binary executable could not be located. Ensure that there is a full installation of OpenSSL or SSLeay in the location specified by the prefix directory.

No crypto library found

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay "crypto" library could not be located. Ensure that there is a full installation of OpenSSL or SSLeay in the location specified by the prefix directory.

No include directory found

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay include directory could not be located. Ensure that there is a full installation of OpenSSL or SSLeay in the location specified by the prefix directory.

No such cipher mode '%s'

(F) The specified cipher mode (i.e. the mode given by the --cipher-mode option) is not recognized.

No such cipher name '%s'

(F) The specified cipher name (i.e. the name given by the --cipher-name option) is not recognized.

No such configuration file '%s'

(F) The specified configuration file (i.e. the file given by the --cipher-config option) does not exist.

No such directory

(W) The response supplied by the user to an interactive prompt for a directory was not a valid directory. The user will be prompted again until a valid directory is supplied.

No such prefix directory '%s'

(F) The specified prefix directory (i.e. the directory given by the --prefix-dir option) does not exist.

No version number found

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay package's version number could not be found in the relevant header file.

No version number header file found

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay header file containing the package's version number could not be located. Ensure that there is a full installation of OpenSSL or SSLeay in the location specified by the prefix directory.

Options in list are not unique

(I) The method called internally to prompt the user for a choice from a list of supposedly unique options was passed a list of options that were not all unique.

OS unsupported: Compiler used to build perl ('%s') not found

(F) The specified compiler that was used to build Perl could not be found and therefore could not be used to build this module.

OS unsupported: Compiler used to build perl not specified in perl configuration

(F) The compiler that was used to build Perl, which can normally be seen by running the command:

    perl -V:cc

was not specified in the standard library module Config and therefore could not be used to build this module.

OS unsupported: No prefix directory found for OpenSSL or SSLeay

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay prefix directory could not be located. This error is only produced when running non-interactively. (In interactive mode the user will be prompted for the prefix directory if it was not given by the --prefix-dir option.)

OS unsupported: The "Decrypt" component requires a "release" mode build of Perl (i.e. one built without DEBUGGING)

(F) The Perl being used was built in "debug" mode, which is not supported by the "Decrypt" component unless specifically enabled with the --debug-mode command-line option.

OS unsupported: Wrong compiler version ('%s'). Perl was built with version '%s'. Please see INSTALL file for details

(F) A different version of the compiler that was used to build Perl is being used to build this module. This is not allowed since it is known to cause breakages with some combinations of compilers. Please use the same compiler to build this module as was used to build Perl itself.

Unknown key source '%s'

(I) The method called internally to prompt the user for a choice of how to specify the cipher key returned an unknown value.

Unknown random number generator '%s'

(I) The method called internally to prompt the user for a choice random number generator returned an unknown value.

Unrecognized version number found (%s)

(F) The OpenSSL or SSLeay package's version number, read from the relevant header file, is not in a format that is recognized.

Warning: %s ignored: requires ExtUtils::MakeMaker version 5.48_01 or later

(W) You either specified the --defaults command-line option or you have the PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT environment variable set to a true value, but you do not have ExtUtils::MakeMaker version 5.48_01 or later, without which these options have no effect. The user will therefore be prompted for responses as usual instead.

Warning: Ignoring Cygwin OpenSSL/SSLeay binary '%s' on Win32

(W) The main OpenSSL or SSLeay binary executable found in the PATH when trying to locate the OpenSSL or SSLeay to use turned out to be a Cygwin binary, which is of no use with the Win32 perl that is being used and will therefore be ignored.

EXAMPLES ^

[UNIX] You have installed OpenSSL in /usr/local

Type

    perl Makefile.PL -d /usr/local

The OpenSSL include and library directories /usr/local/include and /usr/local/lib respectively will be used. The user will be prompted for the answers to other configuration questions.

[Win32] You have built OpenSSL in C:\Temp\openssl-0.9.7e

Type

    perl Makefile.PL -d C:\Temp\openssl-0.9.7e

The OpenSSL include and library directories C:\Temp\openssl-0.9.7e\inc32 and C:\Temp\openssl-0.9.7e\out32dll respectively will be used: these are detected automatically in the absence of include\ and lib\ sub-directories on "native" Windows platforms. The user will be prompted for the answers to other configuration questions.

You want to run Makefile.PL non-interactively

If you are happy with the default values of each option then just type

    perl Makefile.PL --defaults

If you want to override the default value of one or more options but accept the default values for the rest then you can do so, e.g.

    perl Makefile.PL --defaults -n DES

This will use the DES cipher instead of the default AES (or DES_EDE3) cipher, but is otherwise a default configuration with no questions asked.

Note that this style of accepting all default values except for specifically overridden ones applies equally well to the prefix directory option, so creating a default configuration with a non-standard OpenSSL installation location can be easily handled, e.g.

    perl Makefile.PL --defaults -d /usr/local

Alternatively, you can explicitly provide values for every option that would otherwise cause an interactive prompt to be given, e.g.

    perl Makefile.PL -b both -n AES -m CBC -l 32 -p rand -r openssl -i y

This will use the AES cipher in CBC mode with a 32-byte key derived from a password randomly generated by openssl; the crypt_file script will be installed. If the OpenSSL or SSLeay prefix directory is not in one of the locations in which it can be found automatically by Makefile.PL then use the -d option as shown in the previous examples too.

ENVIRONMENT ^

Any standard Module::AutoInstall and ExtUtils::MakeMaker environment variables may be used, namely:

PERL_AUTOINSTALL

Specify Module::AutoInstall command-line options to be postpended to the list of command-line options before its option processing takes place.

PERL_MM_OPT

Specify ExtUtils::MakeMaker command-line arguments to be prepended to the list of command-line arguments before its argument processing takes place.

Note that as far as quoting and escaping is concerned, the environment variable value is not interpreted in the same way as the Bourne shell would interpret the corresponding command-line. Instead, it is simply split on whitespace before being processed.

Also, bear in mind the caveat regarding the use of ExtUtils::MakeMaker command- line arguments under "ARGUMENTS" above.

PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT

If set to a true value then the default value (indicated under "OPTIONS" above) of each option that is not specified on the command-line will be used instead of prompting the user for a response.

You must be using ExtUtils::MakeMaker version 5.48_01 or later for this option to have any effect.

SEE ALSO ^

The INSTALL file;

ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

Module::AutoInstall.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

The MY::test() override method is based on code taken from that in the top-level Makefile.PL script in the Tk distribution (version 804.027), written by Nick Ing-Simmons.

The check_compiler() method in the Module::Install::PRIVATE module used by this script is based on code taken from the get_avail_w32compilers() function in the configsmoke.pl script in the Test-Smoke distribution (version 1.19), written by Abe Timmerman.

The _use_default_response() and _isa_tty() methods in the Module::Install::PRIVATE module used by this script are based on code taken from the prompt() function in the standard library module ExtUtils::MakeMaker (version 6.17), written by Andy Dougherty, Andreas Koenig and Tim Bunce, and currently maintained by Michael G Schwern.

AUTHOR ^

Steve Hay <shay@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (C) 2004-2009, 2012 Steve Hay. All rights reserved.

LICENCE ^

This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself, i.e. under the terms of either the GNU General Public License or the Artistic License, as specified in the LICENCE file.

VERSION ^

Version 1.10

DATE ^

20 Mar 2012

HISTORY ^

See the Changes file.

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