perlaix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems
This document describes various features of IBM's UNIX operating system AIX that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is compiled and/or runs.
For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see "Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3".
When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship an ANSI compliant C compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of gcc for AIX are widely available. A version of gcc is also included in the AIX Toolbox which is shipped with AIX.
Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or "vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler works on your system.
If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support, like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler. This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See also "Threaded Perl" later on.
As of writing (2010-09) only the IBM XL C for AIX or IBM XL C/C++ for AIX compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1/7.1.
The following compiler versions are currently supported by IBM:
IBM XL C and IBM XL C/C++ V8, V9, V10, V11
The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler and therefore also supported.
If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa'). The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
If you choose XL C/C++ V11 you need the April 2010 PTF (or newer) installed otherwise you will not get a working Perl version.
Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development team.
If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files /opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is detected. If you want to build Perl with GDBM support then please install at least gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
Perl | AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th -------+---------------------+-------------------------+------+------- 5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK 5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK 5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK 5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK w th = with thread support w/o th = without thread support OK = tested
Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with a result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
All tests were conducted on the oldest supported AIX technology level with the latest support package applied. If the tested AIX version is out of support (AIX 4.3.3, 5.1, 5.2) then the last available support level was used.
Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x / 5.12.x) and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which was not possible using the emulated interface.
It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
Should yield no problems.
Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 / 6.1 / 7.1.
IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1; V5.8.8 on AIX 5.3 TL11 and AIX 6.1 TL4; V5.10.1 on AIX 7.1) for some AIX system scripts. If you switch the links in /usr/bin from the AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the threaded options are used.
The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
Perl 5.12 an newer is not compatible with the IBM fileset perl.libext.
If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1 you need an APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions. The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you can set:
/etc/security/limits default: (or your user) data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB. The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
IBM calls its implementation of long doubles 128-bit, but it is not the IEEE 128-bit ("quadruple precision") which would give 116 bit of mantissa (nor it is implemented in hardware), instead it's a special software implementation called "double-double", which gives 106 bits of mantissa.
There seem to be various problems in this long double implementation. If Configure detects this brokenness, it will disable the long double support. This can be overriden with explicit
-Dusemorebits, which enables both long doubles and 64 bit integers). If you decide to enable long doubles, for most of the broken things Perl has implemented workarounds, but the handling of the special values infinity and NaN remains badly broken: for example infinity plus zero results in NaN.
With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
rm config.sh ./Configure \ -d \ -Dcc=cc_r \ -Duseshrplib \ -Dusethreads \ -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all make tests in 32-bit mode.
rm config.sh ./Configure \ -d \ -Dcc=cc_r \ -Duseshrplib \ -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell) rm config.sh ./Configure \ -d \ -Dcc=cc_r \ -Duseshrplib \ -Dusethreads \ -Duse64bitall \ -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell) rm config.sh ./Configure \ -d \ -Dcc=cc_r \ -Duseshrplib \ -Duse64bitall \ -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the following option:
A regression in AIX 7 causes a failure in make test in Time::Piece during daylight savings time. APAR IV16514 provides the fix for this. A quick test to see if it's required, assuming it is currently daylight savings in Eastern Time, would be to run
TZ=EST5 date +%Z . This will come back with
EST normally, but nothing if you have the problem.
Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31, 2003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following settings (your mileage may vary):
When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of gcc for AIX are widely available.
At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers, for which you have to pay: xlC and vac. If you decide to use either of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
xlC.C 18.104.22.168 or 22.214.171.124 or 126.96.36.199 or 188.8.131.52 or 184.108.40.206 vac.C 220.127.116.11 or 18.104.22.168 or 22.214.171.124
note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 126.96.36.199, so you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
xlC.aix50.rte 188.8.131.52 or 184.108.40.206
subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example, the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 220.127.116.11, while on aix43, it is 18.104.22.168.
Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
The IBM's compiler patch levels 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199 have compiler optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c, respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files. Upgrading to at least 188.8.131.52 is recommended.
Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows 4.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
# oslevel 184.108.40.206 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte ' bos.rte 220.127.116.11 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime bos.rte 18.104.22.168 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime #
The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
# lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm" bos.adt.libm 22.214.171.124 COMMITTED Base Application Development bos.adt.syscalls 126.96.36.199 COMMITTED System Calls Application #
AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries. Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members. For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on many other platforms.
Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which was not possible using the emulated interface.
All defaults for Configure can be used.
If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 188.8.131.52. Older versions will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 184.108.40.206, but vac 220.127.116.11 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has removed vac 18.104.22.168 through 22.214.171.124 from the software depot, these versions should be considered obsolete.
Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the "base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are cumulative.
vac.C.126.96.36.199 => vac.C.188.8.131.52 is OK (vac.C.184.108.40.206 not needed) xlC.C.220.127.116.11 => xlC.C.18.104.22.168 is NOT OK (xlC.C.22.214.171.124 is not available) # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com. : welcome message ... Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password. Password: ... accepted login stuff ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/ ftp> dir other other.ll output to local-file: other.ll? y 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls. 226 Transfer complete. ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll output to local-file: xlc.ll? y 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls. 226 Transfer complete. ftp> bye ... goodbye messages # ls -l *.ll -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
# lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C ' xlC.C 126.96.36.199 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler xlC.C 188.8.131.52 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.184.108.40.206.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.220.127.116.11.bff -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.18.104.22.168.bff -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.22.214.171.124.bff -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.126.96.36.199.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.188.8.131.52.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.184.108.40.206.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.220.127.116.11.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.18.104.22.168.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.22.214.171.124.bff # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.126.96.36.199.bff #
On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
# lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C ' vac.C 188.8.131.52 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler vac.C 184.108.40.206 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.220.127.116.11.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.18.104.22.168.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.22.214.171.124.bff -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.126.96.36.199.bff # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.188.8.131.52.bff #
Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and fill in its choices
# smit install_update -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.184.108.40.206.bff ] [ OK ] [ OK ]
Follow the messages ... and you're done.
If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click "C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
If linking miniperl
cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
causes error like this
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
you could retry with
make realclean rm config.sh ./Configure -Dusenm ...
which makes Configure to use the
nm tool when scanning for library symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
Related to this, you probably should not use the
-r option of Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the
nm tool is used.
Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box, as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their Linux compatibility packages, available here:
Should yield no problems.
Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
"pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line line this
hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference is not really significant here.
If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might still fail.
In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized. In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time (such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
Rainer Tammer <firstname.lastname@example.org>