Nicholas Bamber > CGI-Application-Plugin-Authentication-0.20 > CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication::Driver::DBI

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Module Version: 0.20   Source  

NAME ^

CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication::Driver::DBI - DBI Authentication driver

VERSION ^

This document describes CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication::Driver::DBI version 0.20

SYNOPSIS ^

 use base qw(CGI::Application);
 use CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication;

 __PACKAGE__->authen->config(
     DRIVER => [ 'DBI',
         DBH         => $self->dbh,
         TABLE       => 'user',
         CONSTRAINTS => {
             'user.name'         => '__CREDENTIAL_1__',
             'MD5:user.password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__'
         },
     ],
 );

DESCRIPTION ^

This Authentication driver uses the DBI module to allow you to authenticate against any database for which there is a DBD module. You can either provide an active database handle, or provide the parameters necessary to connect to the database.

When describing the database structure, you need to specify some or all of the following parameters: TABLE(S), JOIN_ON, COLUMNS, CONSTRAINTS, ORDER_BY and LIMIT.

DBH

The DBI database handle to use. Defaults to $self-dbh()>, which is provided and configured through CGI::Application::Plugin::DBH

TABLE(S) (required)

Provide either a single table name, or an array of table names. You can give the table names aliases which can be referenced in later columns.

     TABLE => 'users',

 - or -

     TABLES => ['users U', 'domains D'],

JOIN_ON (conditionally required)

If you have specified multiple tables, then you need to provide an SQL expression that can be used to join those tables.

     JOIN_ON => 'user.domainid = domain.id',

 - or -

     JOIN_ON => 'U.domainid = D.id',

COLUMNS (optional)

This is a hash of columns/values that should be pulled out of the database and validated locally in perl. Most credentials can be checked right in the database (example username = ?), but some parameters may need to be tested locally in perl, so they must be listed in the COLUMNS option. One example of a value that needs to be tested in perl is a crypted password. In order to test a crypted password, you need to take the entered password, and crypt it with the salt of the already crypted password. But until we actually see the password that is in the database, we will not know the value of the salt that was used to encrypt the password. So we pull the value out using COLUMNS, and the test will be performed automatically in perl.

Any value that matches __CREDENTIAL_n__ (where n is a number) will be replaced with the corresponding credential that was entered by the user. For an explanation of what the credentials are and where they come from, see the section headed with CREDENTIALS in CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication.

     COLUMNS => { 'crypt:password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__' },

CONSTRAINTS (optional)

You will most likely always have some constraints to use. These constraints will be added to the WHERE clause of the SQL query, and will ideally reduce the number of returned rows to one.

Any value that matches __CREDENTIAL_n__ (where n is a number) will be replaced with the corresponding credential that was entered by the user. For an explanation of what the credentials are and where they come from, see the section headed with CREDENTIALS in CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication.

     CONSTRAINTS => {
         'users.email'          => '__CREDENTIAL_1__',
         'MD5:users.passphrase' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__',
         'users.active'         => 1,
     }

ORDER_BY (optional)

This option allows you to order the result set, in case the query returns multiple rows.

     ORDER_BY => 'created DESC'

Note: This option is only useful if you also specify the COLUMNS option.

LIMIT (optional)

In some situations your query may return multiple rows when you only want it to return one. For example if you insert and date a new row instead of updating the existing row when the details for an account change. In this case you want the newest record from the result set, so it will be important to order the result set and limit it to return only one row.

     LIMIT => 1

Note: This option is only useful if you also specify the COLUMNS option.

ENCODED PASSWORDS ^

It is quite common to store passwords in a database in some form that makes them hard (or virtually impossible) to guess. Most of the time one way encryption techniques like Unix crypt or MD5 hashes are used to store the password securely (I would recommend using MD5 or SHA1 over Unix crypt). If you look at the examples listed above, you can see that you can mark your columns with an encoding type. Here is another example:

    CONSTRAINTS => {
        username       => '__CREDENTIAL_1__',
        'MD5:password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__',
    }

Here the password field is expected to be stored in the database in MD5 format. In order for the MD5 check to work for all databases, the password will be encoded using perl, and then checked against the value in the database. So in effect, the following will be done:

    $username = 'test';
    $password = '123';
    $encoded_password = 'ICy5YqxZB1uWSwcVLSNLcA';
    $sth = $dbh->prepare('SELECT count(*) FROM users WHERE username = ? AND password = ?';
    $sth->execute($username, $encoded_password);
    # I we found a row, then the user credentials are valid and the user is logged in

This is all automatically performed behind the scenes when you specify that a certain field in the database is encoded.

We have to handle this slightly different when working with Unix crypt. In order to crypt a password, you need to provide the crypt function with a 2 character salt value. These are usually just generated randomly, and when the value is crypted, the first two characters of the resulting string will be the 2 salt characters. The problem comes into play when you want to check a password against a crypted password. You need to know the salt in order to properly test the password. But in our case, the crypted password is in the DB. This means we can not generate the crypted test password before we run the query against the database.

So instead we pull the value of the crypted password out of the database, and then perform the tests after the query, instead of before. Here is an example:

    CONSTRAINTS => { 'username'       => '__CREDENTIAL_1__' },
    COLUMNS     => { 'crypt:password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__' },

And here is what will happen behind the scenes:

    $username = 'test';
    $password = '123';
    $sth = $dbh->prepare('SELECT password FROM users WHERE username = ?';
    $sth->execute($username);
    ($encoded_password) = $sth->fetchrow_array;
    if ($encoded_password eq crypt($password, $encoded_password)) {
        # The credentials are valid and the user is logged in
    }

Again, this is all done automatically behind the scenes, but I've included it here to illustrate how the queries are performed, and how the comparisons are handled. For more information see the section labelled ENCODED PASSWORDS in the CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication::Driver docs.

EXAMPLE ^

 # using multiple tables
 #  Here we check three credentials (user, password and domain) across
 #  two separate tables.
 __PACKAGE__->authen->config(
     DRIVER => [ 'DBI',
         # the handle comes from $self->dbh, via the "DBH" plugin. 
         TABLES      => ['user', 'domain'],
         JOIN_ON     => 'user.domainid = domain.id',
         CONSTRAINTS => {
             'user.name'     => '__CREDENTIAL_1__',
             'user.password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__',
             'domain.name'   => '__CREDENTIAL_3__'
         }
     ],
 );

  - or -

 # using filtered fields
 #  Here the password column contains values that are encoded using unix crypt
 #  and since we need to know the salt in order to encrypt the password
 #  properly, we need to pull out the password, and check it locally
 __PACKAGE__->authen->config(
     DRIVER => [ 'DBI',
         DBH         => $dbh,   # provide your own DBI handle
         TABLE       => 'user',
         CONSTRAINTS => { 'user.name'      => '__CREDENTIAL_1__' }
         COLUMNS     => { 'crypt:password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__' },
     ],
 );

 - or -

 # extra constraints
 #  Here we only check users where the 'active' column is true
 __PACKAGE__->authen->config(
     DRIVER => [ 'DBI',
         TABLE       => 'user',
         CONSTRAINTS => {
             'user.name'     => '__CREDENTIAL_1__',
             'user.password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__',
             'user.active'   => 't'
         },
     ],
 );

 - or -

 # all of them combined
 #  Here the user is required to enter a username and password (which is
 #  crypted), and a daily code that changes every day (which is encoded using
 #  an MD5 hash hex format and stored in upper case).
 __PACKAGE__->authen->config(
     DRIVER => [ 'DBI',
         TABLES      => ['user U', 'dailycode D'],
         JOIN_ON     => 'U.userid = D.userid',
         CONSTRAINTS => {
             'U.name'            => '__CREDENTIAL_1__',
             'uc:md5_hex:D.code' => '__CREDENTIAL_3__',
             'D.date'            => 'now'
         },
         COLUMNS     => {
             'crypt:U.password' => '__CREDENTIAL_2__'
         },
     ],
 );

METHODS ^

verify_credentials

This method will test the provided credentials against the values found in the database, according to the Driver configuration.

SEE ALSO ^

CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication::Driver, CGI::Application::Plugin::Authentication, perl(1)

LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2005, SiteSuite. All rights reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY ^

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENCE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

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