Troels Liebe Bentsen > IO-EventMux-2.02 > IO::EventMux

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NAME ^

IO::EventMux - Multiplexer for sockets, pipes and any other types of filehandles that you can set O_NONBLOCK on and does buffering for the user.

SYNOPSIS ^

  use IO::EventMux;

  my $mux = IO::EventMux->new();

  $mux->add($my_fh);

  while (1) {
    my $event = $mux->mux();

    # ... do something with $event->{type} and $event->{fh}
  }

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides multiplexing for any set of sockets, pipes, or whatever you can set O_NONBLOCK on. It can be useful for both server and client processes, but it works best when the application's main loop is centered around its mux() method.

The file handles it can work with are either perl's own typeglobs or IO::Handle objects (preferred).

METHODS ^

new([%options])

Constructs an IO::EventMux object.

The optional parameters for the handle will be taken from the IO::EventMux object if not given here:

EventLoop

Defines what mechanism to use for the event loop, currently only two build in are available; IO::Epoll and IO::Select. IO::Select being the default.

  my $mux = new IO::EventMux(EventLoop => [$mechanism, $args]);

IO::Epoll example for holding 1024 file handles:

  my $mux = new IO::EventMux(EventLoop => ["IO::Epoll", 1024]);

It's also possible to define your own, this is done by creating a hash that implements the following structure:

  my $mux = new IO::EventMux(EventLoop => {
      Add => sub { 
        my($self, $list, $fh) = @_;
        ...
      },
      Wait => sub {
        my($self, $timeout) = @_;
        ...
        return {
            can_read => [$fh, ...],
            can_write => [$fh, ...],
        };
        
      },
      Remove => sub {
        my($self, $list, $fh) = @_;
        ...
      },
      Handles => sub {
        my($self) = @_;
        ...
      },
  });

mux([$timeout])

This method will block until ether an event occurs on one of the file handles or the $timeout (floating point seconds) expires. If the $timeout argument is not present, it waits forever. If $timeout is 0, it returns immediately.

The return value is always a hash, which always has the key 'type', indicating what kind it is. It will also usually carry the 'fh' key, indicating what file handle the event happened on.

The 'type' key can have the following values:

timeout

Nothing happened and timeout occurred.

error

An error occurred in connection with the file handle, such as "connection refused", etc.

accepted

A new client connected to a listening socket and the connection was accepted by EventMux. The listening socket file handle is in the 'parent_fh' key. If the file handle is a unix domain socket the credentials of the user connection will be available in the keys; 'pid', 'uid' and 'gid'.

ready

A file handle is ready to be written to, this can be use full when working with nonblocking connects so you know when the remote connection accepted the connection.

accepting

A new client is trying to connect to a listening socket, but the user code must call accept manually. This only happens when the ManualAccept option is set.

read

A socket has incoming data. If the socket's Buffered option is set, this will be what the buffering rule define.

The data is contained in the 'data' key of the event hash. If recv() returned a sender address, it is contained in the 'sender' key and must be manually unpacked according to the socket domain, e.g. with Socket::unpack_sockaddr_in().

read_last

A socket last data before it was closed did not match the buffering rules, as defined by the IO::Buffered type given. he read_last type contains the result of a call to read_last() on the chosen buffer type.

The default is not to return read_last and if no buffer is set read will contain this information.

sent

A socket has sent all the data in it's queue with the send call. This however does not indicate that the data has reached the other end, normally only that the data has reached the local buffer of the kernel.

closing

A file handle was detected to be have been closed by the other end or the file handle was set to be closed by the user. So EventMux stooped listening for events on this file handle. Event data like 'Meta' is still accessible.

The 'missing' key indicates the amount of data or packets left in the user space buffer when the file handle was closed. This does not indicate the amount of data received by the other end, only that the user space buffer left.

closed

A socket/pipe was disconnected/closed, the file descriptor, all internal references, and data store with the file handle was removed.

can_write

The ManualWrite option is set for the file handle, and select() has indicated that the handle can be written to.

can_read

The ManualRead option is set for the file handle, and select() has indicated that the handle can be read from.

add($handle, [ %options ])

Add a socket to the internal list of handles being watched.

The optional parameters for the handle will be taken from the IO::EventMux object if not given here:

Listen

Defines if the file handle should be treated as a listening socket, the default is to auto detect this. I should not be necessary to set this value.

The socket must be set up for listening, which is easily done with IO::Socket::INET:

  my $listener = IO::Socket::INET->new(
    Listen    => 5,
    LocalPort => 7007,
    ReuseAddr => 1,
  );

  $mux->add($listener);

Type

Either "stream" or "dgram". Should be auto detected in most cases.

Defaults to "stream".

ManualAccept

If a connection comes in on a listening socket, it will by default be accepted automatically, and mux() will return a 'connect' event. If ManualAccept is set an 'accepting' event will be returned instead, and the user code must handle it itself.

  $mux->add($my_fh, ManualAccept => 1);

ManualWrite

By default EventMux handles nonblocking writing and you should use $mux-send($fh, $data)> or $mux-sendto($fh, $addr, $data)> to send your data, but if for some reason you send data yourself you can tell EventMux not to do writing for you and generate a 'can_write' event instead.

  $mux->add($my_fh, ManualWrite => 1);

In both cases you can use send() to write data to the file handle.

Note: If both ManualRead and ManualWrite is set, EventMux will not set the socket to nonblocking.

ManualRead

By default EventMux will handle nonblocking reading and generate a read event with the data, but if some reason you would like to do the reading yourself you can have EventMux generate a 'can_read' event for you instead.

  $mux->add($my_fh, ManualRead => 1);

Never read or recv on the file handle. When the socket becomes readable, a can_read() event is returned.

Note: If both ManualRead and ManualWrite is set, EventMux will not set the socket to nonblocking.

ReadSize

By default IO::EventMux will try to read 65536 bytes from the file handle, setting this options to something smaller might help make it easier for EventMux to be fair about how it returns it's event, but will also give more overhead as more system calls will be required to empty a file handle.

Errors

By default IO::EventMux will not deal with socket errors on non connected sockets such as a UDP socket in listening mode or where no peer has been defined. Or in other words whenever you use sendto() on socket. When enabling error handling, IO::EventMux sets the socket to collect errors with the MSG_ERRQUEUE option and collect errors with recvmsg() call.

Errors are sent as error events with a little more information than normal, eg:

  $event = {
    data     => 'packet data',
    dst_port => 'destination port',
    from     => 'ip where the error is from',
    dst_ip   => 'destination ip',
  }

Meta

An optional scalar piece of metadata for the file handle. Can be retrieved and manipulated later with meta()

Buffered

IO::EventMux supports buffering of data before generating events, this can be used to only return events when a "complete" event is done. For this IO::EventMux uses IO::Buffered.

  # Would only return when a complete line 
  $mux->add($goodfh, Buffered => new IO::Buffered(Split => qr/\n/));

Read more here: IO::Buffered

listen()

Wrapper around connect() with option (Listen => SOMAXCONN) set

connect()

Connect and add a socket to IO::EventMux, by using either URL syntax or IO::Socket Syntax. All options related to IO::EventMux is passed when calling add() on the new socket. Connect returns the new socket on completion.

URL Syntax supports this format:

 * (tcp|udp)://HOST:PORT, Returns a udp of tcp socket.
 * (unix|unix_dgram)://path/file.sock, Returns a unix domain socket connection.

For more information on how to use IO::Socket syntax look in IO::Socket::INET and IO::Socket::UNIX.

Example of URL syntax; making a connection to localhost port 22

  my $fh = $mux->connect("tcp://127.0.0.1:22");

Example of the same thing in IO::Socket Syntax;

  my $fh = $mux->connect(
    Proto => 'tcp',
    PeerAddr => '127.0.0.1',
    PeerPort => 22,
  );

set()

Set new options on a fh in IO::EventMux, currently only Buffered options is handled

handles()

Returns a list of file handles managed by this object.

has_events()

Returns true if there are pending events, or false otherwise

type()

Returns the socket type for a file handle

class()

Returns the socket class for a file handle

meta($fh, [$newval])

Set or get a piece of metadata on the filehandle. This can be any scalar value.

remove($fh)

Make EventMux forget about a file handle. The caller will then take over the responsibility of closing it.

close($fh)

Close a file handle. IO::EventMux will stop listing to both reads and writes on the file handle and return a "closing" event and on next mux call kill will be called, returning "closed" for the file handle.

Note: All 'Meta' data associated with the file handle will be kept until the final 'closed' event is returned.

kill($fh)

Closes a file handle without giving time to finish any outstanding operations. Returns a 'closed' event, deletes all buffers and does not keep 'Meta' data.

Note: Does not return the 'read_last' event.

buflen($fh)

Queries the length of the output buffer for this file handle. This only applies if ManualWrite is turned off, which is the default. For Type="dgram" sockets, it returns the number of datagrams in the queue.

An application can use this method to see whether it should send more data or wait until the buffer queue is a bit shorter.

recvdata($fh, $length)

TODO: Queues @data to be written to the file handle $fh. Can only be used when ManualWrite is off (default).

send($fh, @data)

Queues @data to be written to the file handle $fh. Can only be used when ManualWrite is off (default).

If the socket is of Type="stream"

Returns true on success, undef on error. The data is sent when the socket becomes unblocked and a 'sent' event is posted when all data is sent and the buffer is empty. Therefore the socket should not be closed until "buflen($fh)" returns 0 or a sent request has been posted.

If the socket is of Type="dgram"

Each item in @data will be sent as a separate packet. Returns true on success and undef on error.

sendto($fh, $to, @data)

Like send(), but with the recepient $to as a packed sockaddr structure, such as the one returned by Socket::pack_sockaddr_in(). Only for Type="dgram" sockets.

  $mux->sendto($my_fh, pack_sockaddr_in($port, inet_aton($ip)), $data);

push_event($event)

Push event on queue

nonblock($fh)

Puts socket into nonblocking mode.

socket_creds($fh)

Return credentials on UNIX domain sockets.

socket_type($fh)

Return socket type.

socket_listening($fh)

Check if the socket is set to listening mode

recroak()

Helper function to rethrow croaks

socket_errors

Dummy sub that casts an error if the IO::EventMux::Socket::MsgHdr is not installed and the Errors option is used

NOTES

Working with PIPE's: When the other end of a pipe closes it's end, signals can get thrown. To handle this a signal handler needs to be defined:

  # Needed when writing to a broken pipe 
  $SIG{PIPE} = sub { # SIGPIPE
     croak "Broken pipe";
 };

Getting rid of 'Filehandle ... opened only for output'

  # Needed as sysread() throws warnings when STDIN gets closed by the child
  $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {
     croak @_;    
  };

AUTHOR ^

Jonas Jensen <jonas@infopro.dk>, Troels Liebe Bentsen <troels@infopro.dk>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE ^

Copyright 2006-2008: Troels Liebe Bentsen Copyright 2006-2007: Jonas Jensen

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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