Tom Zoerner > Video-ZVBI-0.2.6 > Video::ZVBI

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NAME ^

Video::ZVBI - VBI decoding (teletext, closed caption, ...)

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Video::ZVBI;

  # OR: to import all constants
  use Video::ZVBI qw(/^VBI_/);

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides a Perl interface to libzvbi. The ZVBI library allows to access broadcast data services such as teletext or closed caption via analog video or DVB capture devices.

Official library description: "The ZVBI library provides routines to access raw VBI sampling devices (currently the Linux V4L & V4L2 APIs and the FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD and BSDi bktr driver API are supported), a versatile raw VBI bit slicer, decoders for various data services and basic search, render and export functions for text pages. The library was written for the Zapping TV viewer and Zapzilla Teletext browser."

The ZVBI Perl module covers all exported libzvbi functions. Most of the functions and parameters are exposed nearly identical, or with minor adaptions for the Perl idiom.

Note: This manual page does not reproduce the full documentation which is available along with libzvbi. Hence it's recommended that you use the libzvbi documentation in parallel to this one. It is included in the libzvbi-dev package in the doc/html sub-directory and online at http://zapping.sourceforge.net/doc/libzvbi/index.html

Finally note there's also another, older, module which covers VBI data capture: Video::Capture::VBI and based on that another one which covers Teletext caching: Video::TeletextDB. Check for yourself which one fits your needs better.

Video::ZVBI::capture ^

The following functions create and return capture contexts with the given parameters. Upon success, the returned context can be passed to the read, pull and other control functions. The context is automatically deleted and the device closed when the object is destroyed. The meaning of the parameters to these function is identical to the ZVBI C library.

Upon failure, these functions return undef and an explanatory text in errorstr.

$cap = v4l2_new($dev, $buffers, $services, $strict, $errorstr, $trace)

Initializes a device using the Video4Linux API version 2. The function returns a blessed reference to a capture context. Upon error the function returns undef as result and an error message in $errorstr

Parameters: $dev is the path of the device to open, usually one of /dev/vbi0 or up. $buffers is the number of device buffers for raw VBI data if the driver supports streaming. Otherwise one bounce buffer is allocated for $cap->pull() $services is a logical OR of VBI_SLICED_* symbols describing the data services to be decoded. On return the services actually decodable will be stored here. See ZVBI::raw_dec::add_services() for details. If you want to capture raw data only, set to VBI_SLICED_VBI_525, VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 or both. If this parameter is undef, no services will be installed. You can do so later with $cap->update_services() (Note in this case the $reset parameter to that function will have to be set to 1.) $strict is passed internally to Video::ZVBI::raw_dec::add_services(). $errorstr is used to return an error description. $trace can be used to enable output of progress messages on stderr.

$cap = v4l_new($dev, $scanning, $services, $strict, $errorstr, $trace)

Initializes a device using the Video4Linux API version 1. Should only be used after trying Video4Linux API version 2. The function returns a blessed reference to a capture context. Upon error the function returns undef as result and an error message in $errorstr

Parameters: $dev is the path of the device to open, usually one of /dev/vbi0 or up. $scanning can be used to specify the current TV norm for old drivers which don't support ioctls to query the current norm. Allowed values are: 625 for PAL/SECAM family; 525 for NTSC family; 0 if unknown or if you don't care about obsolete drivers. $services, $strict, $errorstr, $trace: see function v4l2_new() above.

$cap = v4l_sidecar_new($dev, $given_fd, $services, $strict, $errorstr, $trace)

Same as v4l_new() however working on an already open device. Parameter $given_fd must be the numerical file handle, i.e. as returned by Perl's fileno.

$cap = bktr_new($dev, $scanning, $services, $strict, $errorstr, $trace)

Initializes a video device using the BSD driver. Result and parameters are identical to function v4l2_new()

$cap = dvb_new($dev, $scanning, $services, $strict, $errorstr, $trace)

Initializes a DVB video device. This function is deprecated as it has many bugs (see libzvbi documentation for details). Use dvb_new2() instead.

dvb_new2($dev, $pid, $errorstr, $trace)

Initializes a DVB video device. The function returns a blessed reference to a capture context. Upon error the function returns undef as result and an error message in $errorstr

Parameters: $dev is the path of the DVB device to open. $pid specifies the number (PID) of a stream which contains the data. You can pass 0 here and set or change the PID later with $cap->dvb_filter(). $errorstr is used to return an error descriptions. $trace can be used to enable output of progress messages on stderr.

$cap = $proxy->proxy_new($buffers, $scanning, $services, $strict, $errorstr)

Open a new connection to a VBI proxy to open a VBI device for the given services. On side of the proxy daemon, one of the regular capture context creation functions (e.g. v4l2_new()) is invoked. If the creation succeeds, and any of the requested services are available, capturing is started and all captured data is forwarded transparently to the client.

Whenever possible the proxy should be used instead of opening the device directly, since it allows the user to start multiple VBI clients in parallel. When this function fails (usually because the user hasn't started the proxy daemon) applications should automatically fall back to opening the device directly.

Result: The function returns a blessed reference to a capture context. Upon error the function returns undef as result and an error message in $errorstr

Parameters: $proxy is a reference to a previously created proxy client context (Video::ZVBI::proxy.) The remaining parameters have the same meaning as described above, as they are used by the daemon when opening the device. $buffers specifies the number of intermediate buffers on server side of the proxy socket connection. (Note this is not related to the device buffer count.) $scanning indicates the current norm: 625 for PAL and 525 for NTSC; set to 0 if you don't know (you should not attempt to query the device for the norm, as this parameter is only required for old v4l1 drivers which don't support video standard query ioctls.) $services is a set of VBI_SLICED_* symbols describing the data services to be decoded. On return $services contains actually decodable services. See Video::ZVBI::raw_dec::add_services() for details. If you want to capture raw data only, set to VBI_SLICED_VBI_525, VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 or both. If this parameter is undef, no services will be installed. $strict has the same meaning as described in the device-specific capture context creation functions. $errorstr is used to return an error message when the function fails.

The following functions are used to read raw and sliced VBI data from a previously created capture context $cap (the reference is implicitly inserted as first parameter when the functions are invoked as listed below.) All these functions return a status result code: -1 on error (and an error indicator in $!), 0 on timeout (i.e. no data arrived within $timeout_ms milliseconds) or 1 on success.

There are two different types of capture functions: The functions named read... copy captured data into the given Perl scalar. In contrast the functions named pull... leave the data in internal buffers inside the capture context and just return a blessed reference to this buffer. When you need to access the captured data directly via Perl, choose the read functions. When you use functions of this module for further decoding, you should use the pull functions since these are usually more efficient.

$cap->read_raw($raw_buf, $timestamp, $timeout_ms)

Read a raw VBI frame from the capture device into scalar $raw_buf. The buffer variable is automatically extended to the exact length required for the frame's data. On success, the function returns in $timestamp the capture instant in seconds and fractions since 1970-01-01 00:00 in double format.

Parameter $timeout_ms gives the limit for waiting for data in milliseconds; if no data arrives within the timeout, the function returns 0. Note the function may fail if the device does not support reading data in raw format.

$cap->read_sliced($sliced_buf, $n_lines, $timestamp, $timeout_ms)

Read a sliced VBI frame from the capture context into scalar $sliced_buf. The buffer is automatically extended to the length required for the sliced data. Parameter $timeout_ms specifies the limit for waiting for data (in milliseconds.)

On success, the function returns in $timestamp the capture instant in seconds and fractions since 1970-01-01 00:00 in double format and in $n_lines the number of sliced lines in the buffer. Note for efficiency the buffer is an array of vbi_sliced C structures. Use get_sliced_line() to process the contents in Perl, or pass the buffer directly to class Video::ZVBI::vt or other decoder objects.

Note: it's generally more efficient to use pull_sliced() instead, as that one may avoid having to copy sliced data into the given buffer (e.g. for the VBI proxy)

$cap->read($raw_buf, $sliced_buf, $n_lines, $timestamp, $timeout_ms)

This function is a combination of read_raw() and read_sliced(), i.e. reads a raw VBI frame from the capture context into $raw_buf and decodes it to sliced data which is returned in $sliced_buf. For details on parameters see above.

Note: Depending on the driver, captured raw data may have to be copied from the capture buffer into the given buffer (e.g. for v4l2 streams which use memory mapped buffers.) It's generally more efficient to use one of the following "pull" interfaces, especially if you don't require access to raw data at all.

$cap->pull_raw($ref, $timestamp, $timeout_ms)

Read a raw VBI frame from the capture context, which is returned in $ref in form of a blessed reference to an internal buffer. The data remains valid until the next call to this or any other "pull" function. The reference can be passed to the raw decoder function. If you need to process the data in Perl, use read_raw() instead. For all other cases read_raw() is more efficient as it may avoid copying the data.

On success, the function returns in $timestamp the capture instant in seconds and fractions since 1970-01-01 00:00 in double format. Parameter $timeout_ms specifies the limit for waiting for data (in milliseconds.) Note the function may fail if the device does not support reading data in raw format.

$cap->pull_sliced($ref, $n_lines, $timestamp, $timeout_ms)

Read a sliced VBI frame from the capture context, which is returned in $ref in form of a blessed reference to an internal buffer. The data remains valid until the next call to this or any other "pull" function. The reference can be passed to get_sliced_line() to process the data in Perl, or it can be passed to a Video::ZVBI::vt decoder object.

On success, the function returns in $timestamp the capture instant in seconds and fractions since 1970-01-01 00:00 in double format and in $n_lines the number of sliced lines in the buffer. Parameter $timeout_ms specifies the limit for waiting for data (in milliseconds.)

$cap->pull($raw_ref, $sliced_ref, $sliced_lines, $timestamp, $timeout_ms)

This function is a combination of pull_raw() and pull_sliced(), i.e. returns blessed references to an internal raw data buffer in $raw_ref and to a sliced data buffer in $sliced_ref. For details on parameters see above.

For reasons of efficiency the data is not immediately converted into Perl structures. Functions of the "read" variety return a single byte-string in the given scalar which contains all VBI lines. Functions of the "pull" variety just return a binary reference (i.e. a C pointer) which cannot be used by Perl for other purposes than passing it to further processing functions. To process either read or pulled data by Perl code, use the following function:

($data, $id, $line) = $cap->get_sliced_line($buffer, $line_idx)

The function takes a buffer which was filled by one of the slicer or capture & slice functions and a line index. The index must be lower than the line count returned by the slicer. The function returns a list of three elements: sliced data from the respective line in the buffer, slicer type (VBI_SLICED_...) and physical line number.

The structure of the data returned in the first element depends on the kind of data in the VBI line (e.g. for teletext it's 42 bytes, partly hamming 8/4 and parity encoded; the content in the scalar after the 42 bytes is undefined.)

The following control functions work as described in the libzvbi documentation.

$cap->parameters()

Returns a hash reference describing the physical parameters of the VBI source. This hash can be used to initialize the raw decoder context described below.

The hash array has the following members:

scanning

Either 525 (M/NTSC, M/PAL) or 625 (PAL, SECAM), describing the scan line system all line numbers refer to.

sampling_format

Format of the raw VBI data.

sampling_rate

Sampling rate in Hz, the number of samples or pixels captured per second.

bytes_per_line

Number of samples or pixels captured per scan line, in bytes. This determines the raw VBI image width and you want it large enough to cover all data transmitted in the line (with headroom).

offset

The distance from 0H (leading edge hsync, half amplitude point) to the first sample (pixel) captured, in samples (pixels). You want an offset small enough not to miss the start of the data transmitted.

start_a, start_b

First scan line to be captured, first and second field respectively, according to the ITU-R line numbering scheme (see vbi_sliced). Set to zero if the exact line number isn't known.

count_a, count_b

Number of scan lines captured, first and second field respectively. This can be zero if only data from one field is required. The sum count_a + count_b determines the raw VBI image height.

interlaced

In the raw vbi image, normally all lines of the second field are supposed to follow all lines of the first field. When this flag is set, the scan lines of first and second field will be interleaved in memory. This implies count_a and count_b are equal.

synchronous

Fields must be stored in temporal order, i. e. as the lines have been captured. It is assumed that the first field is also stored first in memory, however if the hardware cannot reliable distinguish fields this flag shall be cleared, which disables decoding of data services depending on the field number.

$services = $cap->update_services($reset, $commit, $services, $strict, $errorstr)

Adds and/or removes one or more services to an already initialized capture context. Can be used to dynamically change the set of active services. Internally the function will restart parameter negotiation with the VBI device driver and then call $rd->add_services() on the internal raw decoder context. You may set $reset to rebuild your service mask from scratch. Note that the number of VBI lines may change with this call even if a negative result is returned.

Result: The function returns a bit-mask of supported services among those requested (not including previously added services), 0 upon errors.

$reset when set, clears all previous services before adding new ones (by invoking $raw_dec->reset() at the appropriate time.) $commit when set, applies all previously added services to the device; when doing subsequent calls of this function, commit should be set only for the last call. Reading data cannot continue before changes were committed (because capturing has to be suspended to allow resizing the VBI image.) Note this flag is ignored when using the VBI proxy. $services contains a set of VBI_SLICED_* symbols describing the data services to be decoded. On return the services actually decodable will be stored here, i.e. the behaviour is identical to v4l2_new() etc. $strict and $errorstr are also same as during capture context creation.

$cap->fd()

This function returns the file descriptor used to read from the capture context's device. Note when using the proxy this will not be the actual device, but a socket instead. Some devices may also return -1 if they don't have anything similar, or upon internal errors.

The descriptor is intended be used in a select(2) syscall. The application especially must not read or write from it and must never close the handle (instead destroy the capture context to free the device.) In other words, the file handle is intended to allow capturing asynchronously in the background; The handle will become readable when new data is available.

$cap->get_scanning()

This function is intended to allow the application to check for asynchronous norm changes, i.e. by a different application using the same device. The function queries the capture device for the current norm and returns value 625 for PAL/SECAM norms, 525 for NTSC; 0 if unknown, -1 on error.

$cap->flush()

After a channel change this function should be used to discard all VBI data in intermediate buffers which may still originate from the previous TV channel.

$cap->set_video_path($dev)

The function sets the path to the video device for TV norm queries. Parameter $dev must refer to the same hardware as the VBI device which is used for capturing (e.g. /dev/video0 when capturing from /dev/vbi0) Note: only useful for old video4linux drivers which don't support norm queries through VBI devices.

$cap->get_fd_flags()

Returns properties of the capture context's device. The result is an OR of one or more VBI_FD_* constants:

VBI_FD_HAS_SELECT

Is set when select(2) can be used on the filehandle returned by $cap->fd() to wait for new data on the capture device file handle.

VBI_FD_HAS_MMAP

Is set when the capture device supports "user-space DMA". In this case it's more efficient to use one of the "pull" functions to read raw data because otherwise the data has to be copied once more into the passed buffer.

VBI_FD_IS_DEVICE

Is not set when the capture device file handle is not the actual device. In this case it can only be used for select(2) and not for ioctl(2)

$cap->dvb_filter($pid)

Programs the DVB device transport stream demultiplexer to filter out PES packets with the given $pid. Returns -1 on failure, 0 on success.

$cap->dvb_last_pts()

Returns the presentation time stamp (33 bits) associated with the data last read from the context. The PTS refers to the first sliced VBI line, not the last packet containing data of that frame.

Note timestamps returned by VBI capture read functions contain the sampling time of the data, that is the time at which the packet containing the first sliced line arrived.

Video::ZVBI::proxy ^

The following functions are used for receiving sliced or raw data from VBI proxy daemon. Using the daemon instead of capturing directly from a VBI device allows multiple applications to capture concurrently, e.g. to decode multiple data services.

$proxy = create($dev, $client_name, $flags, $errorstr, $trace)

Creates and returns a new proxy context, or undef upon error. (Note in reality this call will always succeed, since a connection to the proxy daemon isn't established until you actually open a capture context via $proxy->proxy_new())

Parameters: $dev contains the name of the device to open, usually one of /dev/vbi0 and up. Note: should be the same path as used by the proxy daemon, else the client may not be able to connect. $client_name names the client application, typically identical to $0 (without the path though) Can be used by the proxy daemon to fine-tune scheduling or to present the user with a list of currently connected applications. $flags can contain one or more members of VBI_PROXY_CLIENT_* flags. $errorstr is used to return an error descriptions. $trace can be used to enable output of progress messages on stderr.

$proxy->get_capture_if()

This function is not supported as it does not make sense for the Perl module. In libzvbi the function returns a reference to a capture context created from the proxy context via $proxy->proxy_new(). In Perl, you must keep the reference anyway, because otherwise the capture context would be automatically closed and destroyed. So you can just use the stored reference instead of using this function.

$proxy->set_callback(\&callback [, $user_data])

Installs or removes a callback function for asynchronous messages (e.g. channel change notifications.) The callback function is typically invoked while processing a read from the capture device.

Input parameters are a function reference $callback and an optional scalar $user_data which is passed through to the callback unchanged. Call without arguments to remove the callback again.

The callback function will receive the event mask (i.e. one of the constants VBI_PROXY_EV_* in the following list) and, if provided, $user_data as parameters.

VBI_PROXY_EV_CHN_GRANTED

The channel control token was granted, so that the client may now change the channel. Note: the client should return the token after the channel change was completed (the channel will still remain reserved for the requested time.)

VBI_PROXY_EV_CHN_CHANGED

The channel (e.g. TV tuner frequency) was changed by another proxy client.

VBI_PROXY_EV_NORM_CHANGED

The TV norm was changed by another client (in a way which affects VBI, e.g. changes between PAL/SECAM are ignored.) The client must update its services, else no data will be forwarded by the proxy until the norm is changed back.

VBI_PROXY_EV_CHN_RECLAIMED

The proxy daemon requests to return the channel control token. The client is no longer allowed to switch the channel and must immediately reply with a channel notification with flag VBI_PROXY_CHN_TOKEN

VBI_PROXY_EV_NONE

No news.

$proxy->get_driver_api()

This function can be used to query which driver is behind the device which is currently opened by the VBI proxy daemon. Applications which only use libzvbi's capture API need not care about this. The information is relevant to applications which need to switch TV channels or norms.

Returns an identifier describing which API is used on server side, i.e. one of the symbols VBI_API_V4L1, VBI_API_V4L2, VBI_API_BKTR or VBI_API_UNKNOWN upon error. The function will fail if the client is currently not connected to the proxy daemon, i.e. VBI capture has to be started first.

$proxy->channel_request($chn_prio [, $profile])

This function is used to request permission to switch channels or norm. Since the VBI device can be shared with other proxy clients, clients should wait for permission, so that the proxy daemon can fairly schedule channel requests.

Scheduling differs at the 3 priority levels. For available priority levels for $chn_prio see constants VBI_CHN_PRIO_*. At background level channel changes are coordinated by introduction of a virtual token: only the one client which holds the token is allowed to switch channels. The daemon will wait for the token to be returned before it's granted to another client. This way conflicting channel changes are avoided. At the upper levels the latest request always wins. To avoid interference, the application still might wait until it gets indicated that the token has been returned to the daemon.

The token may be granted right away or at a later time, e.g. when it has to be reclaimed from another client first, or if there are other clients with higher priority. If a callback has been registered, the respective function will be invoked when the token arrives; otherwise $proxy->has_channel_control() can be used to poll for it.

To set the priority level to "background" only without requesting a channel, omit the $profile parameter. Else, this parameter must be a reference to a hash with the following members: "sub_prio", "allow_suspend", "min_duration" and "exp_duration".

$proxy->channel_notify($notify_flags [, $scanning])

Sends channel control request to proxy daemon. Parameter $notify_flags is an OR of one or more of the following constants:

VBI_PROXY_CHN_RELEASE

Revoke a previous channel request and return the channel switch token to the daemon.

VBI_PROXY_CHN_TOKEN

Return the channel token to the daemon without releasing the channel; This should always be done when the channel switch has been completed to allow faster scheduling in the daemon (i.e. the daemon can grant the token to a different client without having to reclaim it first.)

VBI_PROXY_CHN_FLUSH

Indicate that the channel was changed and VBI buffer queue must be flushed; Should be called as fast as possible after the channel and/or norm was changed. Note this affects other clients' capturing too, so use with care. Other clients will be informed about this change by a channel change indication.

VBI_PROXY_CHN_NORM

Indicate a norm change. The new norm should be supplied in the scanning parameter in case the daemon is not able to determine it from the device directly.

VBI_PROXY_CHN_FAIL

Indicate that the client failed to switch the channel because the device was busy. Used to notify the channel scheduler that the current time slice cannot be used by the client. If the client isn't able to schedule periodic re-attempts it should also return the token.

$proxy->channel_suspend($cmd)

Request to temporarily suspend capturing (if $cmd is VBI_PROXY_SUSPEND_START) or revoke a suspension (if $cmd equals VBI_PROXY_SUSPEND_STOP.)

$proxy->device_ioctl($request, $arg)

This function allows to manipulate parameters of the underlying VBI device. Not all ioctls are allowed here. It's mainly intended to be used for channel enumeration and channel/norm changes. The request codes and parameters are the same as for the actual device. The caller has to query the driver API via $proxy->get_driver_api() first and use the respective ioctl codes, same as if the device would be used directly.

Parameters and results are equivalent to the called ioctl operation, i.e. $request is an IO code and $arg is a packed binary structure. After the call $arg may be modified for operations which return data. You must make sure the result buffer is large enough for the returned data. Use Perl's pack to build the argument buffer. Example:

  # get current config of the selected channel
  $vchan = pack("ix32iLss", $channel, 0, 0, 0, $norm);
  $proxy->device_ioctl(VIDIOCGCHAN, $vchan);

The result is 0 upon success, else and $! set appropriately. The function also will fail with error code EBUSY if the client doesn't have permission to control the channel.

$proxy->get_channel_desc()

Retrieve info sent by the proxy daemon in a channel change indication. The function returns a list with two members: scanning value (625, 525 or 0) and a boolean indicator if the change request was granted.

$proxy->has_channel_control()

Returns 1 if client is currently allowed to switch channels, else 0.

See examples/proxy-test.pl for examples how to use these functions.

Video::ZVBI::rawdec ^

The functions in this section allow converting raw VBI samples to bits and bytes (i.e. analog to digital conversion - even though the data in a raw VBI buffer is obviously already digital, it's just a sampled image of the analog wave line.)

These functions are used internally by libzvbi if you use the slicer functions of the capture object (e.g. pull_sliced)

$rd = Video::ZVBI::rawdec::new($ref)

Creates and initializes a new raw decoder context. Parameter $ref specifies the physical parameters of the raw VBI image, such as the sampling rate, number of VBI lines etc. The parameter can be either a reference to a capture context (Video::ZVBI::capture) or a reference to a hash. The contents for the hash are as returned by method $cap->parameters() on capture contexts, i.e. they describe the physical parameters of the source.

$services = Video::ZVBI::rawdec::parameters($href, $services, $scanning, $max_rate)

Calculate the sampling parameters required to receive and decode the requested data services. This function can be used to initialize hardware prior to calling $rd->add_service(). The returned sampling format is fixed to VBI_PIXFMT_YUV420, and $href->{bytes_per_line} is set to a reasonable minimum.

Input parameters: $href must be a reference to a hash which is filled with sampling parameters on return (contents see Video::ZVBI::capture::parameters().) $services is a set of VBI_SLICED_* constants. Here (and only here) you can add VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 or VBI_SLICED_VBI_525 to include all VBI scan lines in the calculated sampling parameters. If $scanning is set to 525 only NTSC services are accepted; if set to 625 only PAL/SECAM services are accepted. When scanning is 0, the norm is determined from the requested services; an ambiguous set will result in undefined behaviour.

The function returns a set of VBI_SLICED_* constants describing the data services covered by the calculated sampling parameters returned in $href. This excludes services the libzvbi raw decoder cannot decode assuming the specified physical parameters. On return parameter $max_rate is set to the highest data bit rate in Hz of all services requested (The sampling rate should be at least twice as high; $href->{sampling_rate} will be set by libzvbi to a more reasonable value of 27 MHz derived from ITU-R Rec. 601.)

$rd->reset()

Reset a raw decoder context. This removes all previously added services to be decoded (if any) but does not touch the sampling parameters. You are free to change the sampling parameters after calling this.

$services = $rd->add_services($services, $strict)

After you initialized the sampling parameters in raw decoder context (according to the abilities of your VBI device), this function adds one or more data services to be decoded. The libzvbi raw VBI decoder can decode up to eight data services in parallel. You can call this function while already decoding, it does not change sampling parameters and you must not change them either after calling this.

Input parameters: $services is a set of VBI_SLICED_* constants (see also description of the parameters function above.) $strict is value of 0, 1 or 2 and requests loose, reliable or strict matching of sampling parameters respectively. For example if the data service requires knowledge of line numbers while they are not known, value 0 will accept the service (which may work if the scan lines are populated in a non-confusing way) but values 1 or 2 will not. If the data service may use more lines than are sampled, value 1 will still accept but value 2 will not. If unsure, set to 1.

Returns a set of VBI_SLICED_* constants describing the data services that actually can be decoded. This excludes those services not decodable given sampling parameters of the raw decoder context.

$services = $rd->check_services($services, $strict)

Check and return which of the given services can be decoded with current physical parameters at a given strictness level. See add_services for details on parameter semantics.

$services = $rd->remove_services($services)

Removes one or more data services given in input parameter $services to be decoded from the raw decoder context. This function can be called at any time and does not touch sampling parameters stored in the context.

Returns a set of VBI_SLICED_* constants describing the remaining data services that will be decoded.

$rd->resize($start_a, $count_a, $start_b, $count_b)

Grows or shrinks the internal state arrays for VBI geometry changes. Returns undef.

$n_lines = $rd->decode($ref, $buf)

This is the main service offered by the raw decoder: Decodes a raw VBI image given in $ref, consisting of several scan lines of raw VBI data, into sliced VBI lines in $buf. The output is sorted by line number.

The input $ref can either be a scalar filled by one of the "read" kind of capture functions (or any scalar filled with a byte string with the correct number of samples for the current geometry), or a blessed reference to an internal capture buffer as returned by the "pull" kind of capture functions. The format of the output buffer is the same as described for $cap->read_sliced(). Return value is the number of lines decoded.

Note this function attempts to learn which lines carry which data service, or none, to speed up decoding. Hence you must use different raw decoder contexts for different devices.

Video::ZVBI::dvb_mux ^

These functions convert raw and/or sliced VBI data to a DVB Packetized Elementary Stream or Transport Stream as defined in EN 300 472 "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Specification for conveying ITU-R System B Teletext in DVB bitstreams" and EN 301 775 "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Specification for the carriage of Vertical Blanking Information (VBI) data in DVB bitstreams".

Note EN 300 468 "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Specification for Service Information (SI) in DVB systems" defines another method to transmit VPS data in DVB streams. Libzvbi does not provide functions to generate SI tables but the encode_dvb_pdc_descriptor() function is available to convert a VPS PIL to a PDC descriptor (since version 0.3.0)

Available: All of the functions in this section are available only since libzvbi version 0.2.26

$mx = pes_new( [$callback, $user_data] )

Creates a new DVB VBI multiplexer converting raw and/or sliced VBI data to MPEG-2 Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) packets as defined in the standards EN 300 472 and EN 301 775. Returns undef upon error.

Parameter $callback specifies a handler which is called by $mx->feed() when a new packet is available. must be omitted if $mx->cor() is used. The $user_data is passed through to the handler. For further callback parameters see the description of the feed function.

$mx = ts_new($pid [, $callback, $user_data] )

Allocates a new DVB VBI multiplexer converting raw and/or sliced VBI data to MPEG-2 Transport Stream (TS) packets as defined in the standards EN 300 472 and EN 301 775. Returns undef upon error.

Parameter $pid is a program ID that will be stored in the header of the generated TS packets. The value must be in range 0x0010 to 0x1FFE inclusive.

Parameter $callback specifies a handler which is called by $mx->feed() when a new packet is available. Must be omitted if $mx->cor() is used. The $user_data is passed through to the handler. For further callback parameters see the description of the feed function.

$mx->mux_reset()

This function clears the internal buffers of the DVB VBI multiplexer.

After a reset call the $mx->cor() function will encode a new PES packet, discarding any data of the previous packet which has not been consumed by the application.

$mx->cor($buf, $buffer_left, $sliced, $sliced_left, $service_mask, $pts [, $raw, $sp])

This function converts raw and/or sliced VBI data to one DVB VBI PES packet or one or more TS packets as defined in EN 300 472 and EN 301 775, and stores them in the output buffer.

If the returned $buffer_left value is zero and the returned $sliced_left value is greater than zero another call will be necessary to convert the remaining data.

After a reset() call the cor() function will encode a new PES packet, discarding any data of the previous packet which has not been consumed by the application.

Parameters: buffer will be used as output buffer for converted data. This scalar may be undefined; else it should have the length given in $buffer_left. $buffer_left the number of bytes available in $buffer, and will be decremented by number of bytes stored there. $sliced contains the sliced VBI data to be converted. All data must belong to the same video frame. $sliced is either a blessed reference to a slicer buffer, or a scalar with a byte string consisting of sliced data (i.e. the same formats are accepted as by $vt->decode(). $sliced_left must contain the number of sliced VBI lines in the input buffer $sliced. It will be decremented by the number of successfully converted structures. On failure it will point at the offending line index (relative to the end of the sliced array.) $service_mask Only data services in this set will be encoded. Other data services in the sliced input buffer will be discarded without further checks. Create a set by ORing VBI_SLICED_* constants. $pts contains the presentation time stamp which will be encoded into the PES packet. Bits 33 ... 63 are discarded.

$raw shall contain a raw VBI frame of ($sp->{count_a} + $sp->{count_b}) lines times $sp->{bytes_per_line}. The function encodes only those lines which have been selected by sliced lines in the $sliced array with id VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 The data field of these structures is ignored. When the sliced input buffer does not contain such structures $raw can be omitted. $sp Describes the data in the raw buffer unless raw is omitted. Else it must be valid, with the constraints described for feed() below.

The function returns 0 on failures, which may occur under the following circumstances:

  • The maximum PES packet size, or the value selected with $mx->set_pes_packet_size(), is too small to contain all the sliced and raw VBI data.
  • The sliced array is not sorted by ascending line number, except for elements with line number 0 (undefined).
  • Only the following data services can be encoded: (1) VBI_SLICED_TELETEXT_B on lines 7 to 22 and 320 to 335 inclusive, or with line number 0 (undefined). All Teletext lines will be encoded with data_unit_id 0x02 ("EBU Teletext non-subtitle data"). (2) VBI_SLICED_VPS on line 16. (3) VBI_SLICED_CAPTION_625 on line 22. (4) VBI_SLICED_WSS_625 on line 23. (5) Raw VBI data with id VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 can be encoded on lines 7 to 23 and 320 to 336 inclusive. Note for compliance with the Teletext buffer model defined in EN 300 472, EN 301 775 recommends to encode at most one raw and one sliced, or two raw VBI lines per frame.
  • A vbi_sliced structure contains a line number outside the valid range specified above.
  • parameter $raw is undefined although the sliced array contains a structure with id VBI_SLICED_VBI_625.
  • One or more members of the $sp structure are invalid.
  • A vbi_sliced structure with id VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 contains a line number outside the ranges defined by $sp.

On all errors $sliced_left will refer to the offending sliced line in the index buffer (i.e. relative to the end of the buffer) and the output buffer remains unchanged.

$mx->feed($sliced, $sliced_lines, $service_mask, $pts [, $raw, $sp])

This function converts raw and/or sliced VBI data to one DVB VBI PES packet or one or more TS packets as defined in EN 300 472 and EN 301 775. To deliver output, the callback function passed to pes_new() or ts_new() is called once for each PES or TS packet.

Parameters: $sliced contains the sliced VBI data to be converted. All data must belong to the same video frame. $sliced is either a blessed reference to a slicer buffer, or a scalar with a byte string consisting of sliced data (i.e. the same formats are accepted as by $vt->decode(). $sliced_lines number of valid lines in the $sliced input buffer. $service_mask Only data services in this set will be encoded. Other data services in the sliced buffer will be discarded without further checks. Create a set by ORing VBI_SLICED_* constants. $pts This Presentation Time Stamp will be encoded into the PES packet. Bits 33 ... 63 are discarded.

$raw shall contain a raw VBI frame of ($sp->{count_a} + $sp->{count_b}) lines times $sp->{bytes_per_line}. The function encodes only those lines which have been selected by sliced lines in the $sliced array with id VBI_SLICED_VBI_625 The data field of these structures is ignored. When the sliced input buffer does not contain such structures $raw can be omitted.

$sp describes the data in the raw buffer unless raw is omitted. Else it must be valid, with the following additional constraints: * videostd_set must contain one or more bits from the VBI_VIDEOSTD_SET_625_50. * scanning must be 625 (libzvbi 0.2.x only) * sampling_format must be VBI_PIXFMT_Y8 or VBI_PIXFMT_YUV420. Chrominance samples are ignored. * sampling_rate must be 13500000. * offset must be >= 132. * samples_per_line (in libzvbi 0.2.x bytes_per_line) must be >= 1. * offset + samples_per_line must be <= 132 + 720. * synchronous must be set.

The function returns 0 on failures. For a description of failure conditions see cor() above.

$mx->get_data_identifier()

Returns the data_identifier the multiplexer encodes into PES packets.

$ok = $mx->set_data_identifier($data_identifier)

This function can be used to determine the $data_identifier byte to be stored in PES packets. For compatibility with decoders compliant to EN 300 472 this should be a value in the range 0x10 to 0x1F inclusive. The values 0x99 to 0x9B inclusive as defined in EN 301 775 are also permitted. The default data_identifier is 0x10.

Returns 0 if $data_identifier is outside the valid range.

$size = $mx->get_min_pes_packet_size()

Returns the maximum size of PES packets the multiplexer generates.

$size = $mx->get_max_pes_packet_size()

Returns the minimum size of PES packets the multiplexer generates.

$ok = $mx->set_pes_packet_size($min_size, $max_size)

Determines the minimum and maximum total size of PES packets generated by the multiplexer, including all header bytes. When the data to be stored in a packet is smaller than the minimum size, the multiplexer will fill the packet up with stuffing bytes. When the data is larger than the maximum size the feed() and cor() functions will fail.

The PES packet size must be a multiple of 184 bytes, in the range 184 to 65504 bytes inclusive, and this function will round $min_size up and $max_size down accordingly. If after rounding the maximum size is lower than the minimum, it will be set to the same value as the minimum size.

The default minimum size is 184, the default maximum 65504 bytes. For compatibility with decoders compliant to the Teletext buffer model defined in EN 300 472 the maximum should not exceed 1472 bytes.

Returns 0 on failure (out of memory)

The next functions provide similar functionality as described above, but are special as they work without a dvb_mux object. Meaning and use of parameters is the same as described above.

Video::ZVBI::dvb_multiplex_sliced($buf, $buffer_left, $sliced, $sliced_left, $service_mask, $data_identifier, $stuffing)

Converts the sliced VBI data in the $sliced buffer to VBI data units as defined in EN 300 472 and EN 301 775 and stores them in $buf as output buffer.

Video::ZVBI::dvb_multiplex_raw($buf, $buffer_left, $raw, $raw_left, $data_identifier, $videostd_set, $line, $first_pixel_position, $n_pixels_total, $stuffing)

Converts one line of raw VBI samples in $raw to one or more "monochrome 4:2:2 samples" data units as defined in EN 301 775, and stores them in the $buf output buffer.

Parameters: $line The ITU-R line number to be encoded in the data units. It must not change until all samples have been encoded. $first_pixel_position The horizontal offset where decoders shall insert the first sample in the VBI, counting samples from the start of the digital active line as defined in ITU-R BT.601. Usually this value is zero and $n_pixels_total is 720. $first_pixel_position + $n_pixels_total must not be greater than 720. This parameter must not change until all samples have been encoded. $n_pixels_total Total size of the raw input buffer in bytes, and the total number of samples to be encoded. Initially this value must be equal to $raw_left, and it must not change until all samples have been encoded. Remaining parameters are the same as described above.

Note: According to EN 301 775 all lines stored in one PES packet must belong to the same video frame (but the data of one frame may be transmitted in several successive PES packets). They must be encoded in the same order as they would be transmitted in the VBI, no line more than once. Samples may have to be split into multiple segments and they must be contiguously encoded into adjacent data units. The function cannot enforce this if multiple calls are necessary to encode all samples.

Video::ZVBI::dvb_demux ^

Separating VBI data from a DVB PES stream (EN 301 472, EN 301 775).

$dvb = Video::ZVBI::dvb_demux::pes_new( [$callback [, $user_data]] )

Creates a new DVB VBI demultiplexer context taking a PES stream as input. Returns a reference to the newly allocated DVB demux context.

The optional callback parameters should only be present if decoding will occur via the $dvb>feed() method. The function referenced by $callback will be called inside of $dvb->feed() whenever new sliced data is available. Optional parameter $user_data is appended to the callback parameters. See $dvb>feed() for additional details.

$dvb->reset()

Resets the DVB demux to the initial state as after creation. Intended to be used after channel changes.

$n_lines = $dvb->cor($sliced, $sliced_lines, $pts, $buf, $buf_left)

This function takes an arbitrary number of DVB PES data bytes in $buf, filters out PRIVATE_STREAM_1 packets, filters out valid VBI data units, converts them to sliced buffer format and stores the data at $sliced. Usually the function will be called in a loop:

  $left = length($buffer);
  while ($left > 0) {
    $n_lines = $dvb->cor ($sliced, 64, $pts, $buffer, $left);
    if ($n_lines > 0) {
      $vt->decode($sliced, $n_lines, pts_conv($pts));
    }
  }

Input parameters: $buf contains data read from a DVB device (needs not align with packet boundaries.) Note you must not modify the buffer until all data is processed as indicated by $buf_left being zero (unless you remove processed data and reset the left count to zero.) $buffer_left specifies the number of unprocessed bytes (at the end of the buffer.) This value is decremented in each call by the number of processed bytes. Note the packet filter works faster with larger buffers. $sliced_lines specifies the maximum number of sliced lines expected as result.

Returns the number of sliced lines stored in $sliced. May be zero if more data is needed or the data contains errors. Demultiplexed sliced data is stored in $sliced. You must not change the contents until a frame is complete (i.e. the function returns a non-value.) $pts returns the Presentation Time Stamp associated with the first line of the demultiplexed frame.

Note: Demultiplexing of raw VBI data is not supported yet, raw data will be discarded.

$ok = $dvb->feed($buf)

This function takes an arbitrary number of DVB PES data bytes in $buf, filters out PRIVATE_STREAM_1 packets, filters out valid VBI data units, converts them to vbi_sliced format and calls the callback function given during creation of the context. Returns 0 if the data contained errors.

The function is similar to $dvb->cor(), but uses an internal buffer for sliced data. Since this function does not return sliced data, it's only useful if you have installed a handler. Do not mix calls to this function with $dvb->cor().

The callback function is called with the following parameters:

  $ok = &$callback($sliced_buf, $n_lines, $pts, $user_data);

$sliced is a reference to a buffer holding sliced data; the reference has the same type as returned by capture functions. $n_lines specifies the number of valid lines in the buffer. $pts is the timestamp. The last parameter is $user_data, if given during creation. The handler should return 1 on success, 0 on failure.

Note: Demultiplexing of raw VBI data is not supported yet, raw data will be discarded.

$dvb->set_log_fn($mask [, $log_fn [, $user_data]])

The DVB demultiplexer supports the logging of errors in the PES stream and information useful to debug the demultiplexer. With this function you can redirect log messages generated by this module from general log function Video::ZVBI::set_log_fn() to a different function or enable logging only in the DVB demultiplexer. The callback can be removed by omitting the handler name.

Input parameters: $mask specifies which kind of information to log; may be zero. $log_fn is a reference to the handler function. Optional $user_data is passed through to the handler.

The handler is called with the following parameters: level, $context, $message and, if given, $user_data.

Note: Kind and contents of log messages may change in the future.

Video::ZVBI::idl_demux ^

The functions in this section decode data transmissions in Teletext Independent Data Line packets (EN 300 708 section 6), i.e. data transmissions based on packet 8/30.

$idl = Video::ZVBI::idl_demux::new($channel, $address [, $callback, $user_data] )

Creates and returns a new Independent Data Line format A (EN 300 708 section 6.5) demultiplexer.

$channel filter out packets of this channel. $address filter out packets with this service data address. Optional: $callback is a handler to be called by $idl->feed() when new data is available. If present, $user_data is passed through to the handler function.

$idl->reset(dx)

Resets the IDL demux context, useful for example after a channel change.

$ok = $idl->feed($buf)

This function takes a stream of Teletext packets, filters out packets of the desired data channel and address and calls the handler given context creation when new user data is available.

Parameter $buf is a scalar containing a teletext packet's data (at last 42 bytes, i. e. without clock run-in and framing code), as returned by the slicer functions. The function returns 0 if the packet contained incorrectable errors.

Parameters to the handler are: $buffer, $flags, $user_data.

$ok = $idl->feed_frame($sliced_buf, $n_lines)

This function works like $idl->feed() but takes a sliced buffer (i.e. a full frame's worth of sliced data) and automatically filters out all teletext lines. This can be used to "short-circuit" the capture output with the demultiplexer.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.26

Video::ZVBI::pfc_demux ^

Separating data transmitted in Page Function Clear Teletext packets (ETS 300 708 section 4), i.e. using regular packets on a dedicated teletext page.

$pfc = Video::ZVBI::pfc_demux::new($pgno, $stream [, $callback, $user_data] )

Creates and returns a new demultiplexer context.

Parameters: $page specifies the teletext page on which the data is transmitted. $stream is the stream number to be demultiplexed.

Optional parameter $callback is a reference to a handler to be called by $pfc->feed() when a new data block is available. Is present, $user_data is passed through to the handler.

$pfc->reset()

Resets the PFC demux context, useful for example after a channel change.

$pfc->feed($buf)

This function takes a raw stream of Teletext packets, filters out the requested page and stream and assembles the data transmitted in this page in an internal buffer. When a data block is complete it calls the handler given during creation.

The handler is called with the following parameters: $pgno is the page number given during creation; $stream is the stream in which the block was received; $application_id is the application ID of the block; $block is a scalar holding the block's data; optional $user_data is passed through from the creation.

$ok = $pfc->feed_frame($sliced_buf, $n_lines)

This function works like $pfc->feed() but takes a sliced buffer (i.e. a full frame's worth of sliced data) and automatically filters out all teletext lines. This can be used to "short-circuit" the capture output with the demultiplexer.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.26

Video::ZVBI::xds_demux ^

Separating XDS data from a Closed Caption stream (EIA 608).

$xds = Video::ZVBI::xds_demux::new( [$callback, $user_data] )

Creates and returns a new Extended Data Service (EIA 608) demultiplexer.

The optional parameters $callback and $user_data specify a handler and passed-through parameter which is called when a new packet is available.

$xds->reset()

Resets the XDS demux, useful for example after a channel change.

$xds->feed($buf)

This function takes two successive bytes of a raw Closed Caption stream, filters out XDS data and calls the handler function given during context creation when a new packet is complete.

Parameter $buf is a scalar holding data from NTSC line 284 (as returned by the slicer functions.) Only the first two bytes in the buffer hold valid data.

Returns 0 if the buffer contained parity errors.

The handler is called with the following parameters: $xds_class is the XDS packet class, i.e. one of the VBI_XDS_CLASS_* constants. $xds_subclass holds the subclass; meaning depends on the main class. $buffer is a scalar holding the packet data (already parity decoded.) optional $user_data is passed through from the creation.

$ok = $xds->feed_frame($sliced_buf, $n_lines)

This function works like $xds->feed() but takes a sliced buffer (i.e. a full frame's worth of sliced data) and automatically filters out all teletext lines. This can be used to "short-circuit" the capture output with the demultiplexer.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.26

Video::ZVBI::vt ^

This section describes high level decoding functions. Input to the decoder functions in this section is sliced data, as returned from capture objects (Video::ZVBI::capture) or the raw decoder (Video::ZVBI::rawdec)

$vt = Video::ZVBI::vt::decoder_new()

Creates and returns a new data service decoder instance.

Note the type of data services to be decoded is determined by the type of installed callbacks. Hence you must install at least one callback using $vt->event_handler_register().

$vt->decode($buf, $n_lines, $timestamp)

This is the main service offered by the data service decoder: Decodes zero or more lines of sliced VBI data from the same video frame, updates the decoder state and invokes callback functions for registered events. The function always returns undef.

Input parameters: $buf is either a blessed reference to a slicer buffer, or a scalar with a byte string consisting of sliced data. $n_lines gives the number of valid lines in the sliced data buffer and should be exactly the value returned by the slicer function. $timestamp specifies the capture instant of the input data in seconds and fractions since 1970-01-01 00:00 in double format. The timestamps are expected to advance by 1/30 to 1/25 seconds for each call to this function. Different steps will be interpreted as dropped frames, which starts a resynchronization cycle, eventually a channel switch may be assumed which resets even more decoder state. So this function must be called even if a frame did not contain any useful data (with parameter $n_lines = 0)

$vt->channel_switched( [$nuid] )

Call this after switching away from the channel (RF channel, video input line, ... - i.e. after switching the network) from which this context used to receive VBI data, to reset the decoding context accordingly. This includes deletion of all cached Teletext and Closed Caption pages from the cache. Optional parameter $nuid is currently unused by libzvbi and defaults to zero.

The decoder attempts to detect channel switches automatically, but this does not work reliably, especially when not receiving and decoding Teletext or VPS (since only these usually transmit network identifiers frequently enough.)

Note the reset is not executed until the next frame is about to be decoded, so you may still receive "old" events after calling this. You may also receive blank events (e. g. unknown network, unknown aspect ratio) revoking a previously sent event, until new information becomes available.

($type, $subno, $lang) = $vt->classify_page($pgno)

This function queries information about the named page. The return value is a list consisting of three scalars. Their content depends on the data service to which the given page belongs:

For Closed Caption pages ($pgno value in range 1 ... 8) $subno will always be zero, $language set or an empty string. $type will be VBI_SUBTITLE_PAGE for page 1 ... 4 (Closed Caption channel 1 ... 4), VBI_NORMAL_PAGE for page 5 ... 8 (Text channel 1 ... 4), or VBI_NO_PAGE if no data is currently transmitted on the channel.

For Teletext pages ($pgno in range hex 0x100 ... 0x8FF) $subno returns the highest sub-page number used. Note this number can be larger (but not smaller) than the number of sub-pages actually received and cached. Still there is no guarantee the advertised sub-pages will ever appear or stay in cache. Special value 0 means the given page is a "single page" without alternate sub-pages. (Hence value 1 will never be used.) $language currently returns the language of subtitle pages, or an empty string if unknown or the page is not classified as VBI_SUBTITLE_PAGE.

Note: The information returned by this function is volatile: When more information becomes available, or when pages are modified (e. g. activation of subtitles, news updates, program related pages) sub-page numbers can increase or page types and languages can change.

$vt->set_brightness($brightness)

Change brightness of text pages, this affects the color palette of pages fetched with $vt->fetch_vt_page() and $vt->fetch_cc_page(). Parameter $brightness is in range 0 ... 255, where 0 is darkest, 255 brightest. Brightness value 128 is default.

$vt->set_contrast($contrast)

Change contrast of text pages, this affects the color palette of pages fetched with $vt->fetch_vt_page() and $vt->fetch_cc_page(). Parameter $contrast is in range -128 to 127, where -128 is inverse, 127 maximum. Contrast value 64 is default.

$vt->teletext_set_default_region($default_region)

The original Teletext specification distinguished between eight national character sets. When more countries started to broadcast Teletext the three bit character set id was locally redefined and later extended to seven bits grouping the regional variants. Since some stations still transmit only the legacy three bit id and we don't ship regional variants of this decoder as TV manufacturers do, this function can be used to set a default for the extended bits. The "factory default" is 16.

Parameter $default_region is a value between 0 ... 80, index into the Teletext character set table according to ETS 300 706, Section 15 (or libzvbi source file lang.c). The three last significant bits will be replaced.

$pg = $vt->fetch_vt_page($pgno, $subno [, $max_level, $display_rows, $navigation])

Fetches a Teletext page designated by parameters $pgno and $subno from the cache, formats and returns it as a blessed reference to a page object of type Video::ZVBI::page. The reference can then be passed to the various libzvbi methods working on page objects, such as the export functions.

The function returns undef if the page is not cached or could not be formatted for other reasons, for instance is a data page not intended for display. Level 2.5/3.5 pages which could not be formatted e. g. due to referencing data pages not in cache are formatted at a lower level.

Further input parameters: If $subno is VBI_ANY_SUBNO then the newest sub-page of the given page is returned. $max_level is one of the VBI_WST_LEVEL_* constants and specifies the Teletext implementation level to use for formatting. $display_rows limits rendering to the given number of rows (i.e. row 0 ... $display_rows - 1) In practice, useful values are 1 (format the page header row only) or 25 (complete page). Boolean parameter $navigation can be used to skip parsing the page for navigation links to save formatting time. The last three parameters are optional and default to VBI_WST_LEVEL_3p5, 25 and 1 respectively.

Although safe to do, this function is not supposed to be called from an event handler since rendering may block decoding for extended periods of time.

The returned reference must be destroyed to release resources which are locked internally in the library during the fetch. The destruction is done automatically when a local variable falls out of scope, or it can be forced by use of Perl's undef operator.

$pg = $vt->fetch_cc_page($pgno, $reset)

Fetches a Closed Caption page designated by $pgno from the cache, formats and returns it and as a blessed reference to a page object of type Video::ZVBI::page. Returns undef upon errors.

Closed Caption pages are transmitted basically in two modes: at once and character by character ("roll-up" mode). Either way you get a snapshot of the page as it should appear on screen at the present time. With $vt->event_handler_register() you can request a VBI_EVENT_CAPTION event to be notified about pending changes (in case of "roll-up" mode that is with each new word received) and the vbi_page->dirty fields will mark the lines actually in need of updates, to speed up rendering.

If the $reset parameter is set to 1, the page dirty flags in the cached paged are reset after fetching. Pass 0 only if you plan to call this function again to update other displays. If omitted, the parameter defaults to 1.

Although safe to do, this function is not supposed to be called from an event handler, since rendering may block decoding for extended periods of time.

$yes_no = $vt->is_cached($pgno, $subno)

This function queries if the page specified by parameters $pgno and $subno is currently available in the cache. The result is 1 if yes, else 0.

This function is deprecated for reasons of forwards compatibility: At the moment pages can only be added to the cache but not removed unless the decoder is reset. That will change, making the result volatile in a multi-threaded environment.

$subno = $vt->cache_hi_subno($pgno)

This function queries the highest cached sub-page of the page specified by parameter $pgno.

This function is deprecated for the same reason as $vt->is_cached()

$title = $vt->page_title($pgno, $subno)

The function makes an effort to deduce a page title to be used in bookmarks or similar purposes for the page specified by parameters $pgno and $subno. The title is mainly derived from navigation data on the given page. The function returns the title or undef upon error.

Typically the transmission of VBI data elements like a Teletext or Closed Caption page spans several VBI lines or even video frames. So internally the data service decoder maintains caches accumulating data. When a page or other object is complete it calls the respective event handler to notify the application.

Clients can register any number of handlers needed, also different handlers for the same event. They will be called by the $vt->decode() function in the order in which they were registered. Since decoding is stopped while in the callback, the handlers should return as soon as possible.

The handler function receives two parameters: First is the event type (i.e. one of the VBI_EVENT_* constants), second a hash reference describing the event. See libzvbi for a definition of contents.

$vt->event_handler_register($event_mask, $handler [, $user_data])

Registers a new event handler. $event_mask can be any 'or' of VBI_EVENT_* constants, -1 for all events and 0 for none. When the $handler function with $user_data is already registered, its event_mask will be changed. Any number of handlers can be registered, also different handlers for the same event which will be called in registration order.

Apart of adding handlers this function also enables and disables decoding of data services depending on the presence of at least one handler for the respective data. A VBI_EVENT_TTX_PAGE handler for example enables Teletext decoding.

This function can be safely called at any time, even from inside of a handler. Note only 10 event callback functions can be registered in a script at the same time. Callbacks are automatically unregistered when the decoder object is destroyed.

$vt->event_handler_unregister($handler [, $user_data])

Unregisters the event handler $handler with parameter $user_data, if such a handler was previously registered.

Apart of removing a handler this function also disables decoding of data services when no handler is registered to consume the respective data. Removing the last VBI_EVENT_TTX_PAGE handler for example disables Teletext decoding.

This function can be safely called at any time, even from inside of a handler removing itself or another handler, and regardless if the handler has been successfully registered.

$vt->event_handler_add($event_mask, $handler [, $user_data])

Deprecated: Installs $handler as event callback for the given events. When using this function you can install only a single event handler per decoder (note this is a stronger limitation than the one in libzvbi for this function.) For this reason the function is deprecated; use event_handler_register() in new code. The function returns boolean FALSE on failure, else TRUE.

Parameters: $event_mask is one of the VBI_EVENT* constants and specifies the events the handler is waiting for. $handler is a reference to a handler function. The optional $user_data is stored internally and passed through in calls to the event handler function.

$vt->event_handler_remove($handler)

Deprecated: This function removes an event handler function (if any) which was previously installed via $vt>event_handler_add(). Parameter $handler is a reference to the event handler which is to be removed (currently ignored as only one handler can be installed.)

Use event_handler_register() and event_handler_unregister() in new code instead.

The following event types are defined:

VBI_EVENT_NONE

No event.

VBI_EVENT_CLOSE

The vbi decoding context is about to be closed. This event is sent when the decoder object is destroyed and can be used to clean up event handlers.

VBI_EVENT_TTX_PAGE

The vbi decoder received and cached another Teletext page designated by $ev->{pgno} and $ev->{subno}.

$ev->{roll_header} flags the page header as suitable for rolling page numbers, e. g. excluding pages transmitted out of order.

The $ev->{header_update} flag is set when the header, excluding the page number and real time clock, changed since the last VBI_EVENT_TTX_PAGE. Note this may happen at midnight when the date string changes. The $ev->{clock_update} flag is set when the real time clock changed since the last VBI_EVENT_TTX_PAGE (that is at most once per second). They are both set at the first VBI_EVENT_TTX_PAGE sent and unset while the received header or clock field is corrupted.

If any of the roll_header, header_update or clock_update flags are set $ev->{raw_header} is a pointer to the raw header data (40 bytes), which remains valid until the event handler returns. $ev->{pn_offset} will be the offset (0 ... 37) of the three digit page number in the raw or formatted header. Always call $vt->fetch_vt_page() for proper translation of national characters and character attributes, the raw header is only provided here as a means to quickly detect changes.

VBI_EVENT_CAPTION

A Closed Caption page has changed and needs visual update. The page or "CC channel" is designated by $ev->{pgno}.

When the client is monitoring this page, the expected action is to call $vt->fetch_cc_page(). To speed up rendering, more detailed update information can be queried via $pg->get_page_dirty_range(). (Note the vbi_page will be a snapshot of the status at fetch time and not event time, i.e. the "dirty" flags accumulate all changes since the last fetch.)

VBI_EVENT_NETWORK

Some station/network identifier has been received or is no longer transmitted (in the latter case all values are zero, e.g. after a channel switch). The event will not repeat until a different identifier has been received and confirmed. (Note: VPS/TTX and XDS will not combine in real life, feeding the decoder with artificial data can confuse the logic.)

The referenced hash contains the following elements: nuid, name, call, tape_delay, cni_vps, cni_8301, cni_8302, cycle.

Minimum time to identify network, when data service is transmitted: VPS (DE/AT/CH only): 0.08 seconds; Teletext PDC or 8/30: 2 seconds; XDS (US only): unknown, between 0.1x to 10x seconds.

VBI_EVENT_TRIGGER

Triggers are sent by broadcasters to start some action on the user interface of modern TVs. Until libzvbi implements all of WebTV and SuperTeletext the information available are program related (or unrelated) URLs, short messages and Teletext page links.

This event is sent when a trigger has fired. The hash parameter contains the following elements: type, eacem, name, url, script, nuid, pgno, subno, expires, itv_type, priority, autoload.

VBI_EVENT_ASPECT

The vbi decoder received new information (potentially from PAL WSS, NTSC XDS or EIA-J CPR-1204) about the program aspect ratio.

The hash parameter contains the following elements: first_line, last_line, ratio, film_mode, open_subtitles.

VBI_EVENT_PROG_INFO

We have new information about the current or next program. (Note this event is preliminary as info from Teletext is not implemented yet.)

The referenced has contains the program description including many parameters. See libzvbi documentation for details.

VBI_EVENT_NETWORK_ID

Like VBI_EVENT_NETWORK, but this event will also be sent when the decoder cannot determine a network name.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.20

Video::ZVBI::page ^

These are functions to render Teletext and Closed Caption pages directly into memory, essentially a more direct interface to the functions of some important export modules described in Video::ZVBI::export.

All of the functions in this section work on page objects as returned by the page cache's "fetch" functions (see Video::ZVBI::vt) or the page search function (see Video::ZVBI::search)

$canvas = $pg->draw_vt_page($fmt=VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE, $reveal=0, $flash_on=0)

Draw a complete Teletext page. Each teletext character occupies 12 x 10 pixels (i.e. a character is 12 pixels wide and each line is 10 pixels high. Note that this aspect ratio is not optimal for display, so pixel lines should be doubled. This is done automatically by the XPM conversion functions.)

The image is returned in a scalar which contains a byte string. When using format VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE, each pixel consists of 4 subsequent bytes in the string (RGBA). Hence the string is 4 * 12 * $pg_columns * 10 * $pg_rows bytes long, where $pg_columns and $pg_rows are the page width and height in teletext characters respectively. When using format VBI_PIXFMT_PAL8 (only available with libzvbi version 0.2.26 or later) each pixel uses one byte. In this case each pixel value is an index into the color palette as delivered by $pg->get_page_color_map().

Note this function is just a convenience interface to $pg->draw_vt_page_region() which automatically inserts the page column, row, width and height parameters by querying page dimensions. The image width is set to the full page width (i.e. same as when passing value -1 for $img_pix_width)

See the following function for descriptions of the remaining parameters.

$pg->draw_vt_page_region($fmt, $canvas, $img_pix_width, $col_pix_off, $row_pix_off, $column, $row, $width, $height, $reveal=0, $flash_on=0)

Draw a sub-section of a Teletext page. Each character occupies 12 x 10 pixels (i.e. a character is 12 pixels wide and each line is 10 pixels high.)

The image is written into $canvas. If the scalar is undefined or not large enough to hold the output image, the canvas is initialized as black. Else it's left as is. This allows to call the draw functions multiple times to assemble an image. In this case $img_pix_width must have the same value in all rendering calls. See also $pg->draw_blank().

The image is returned in a scalar which contains a byte string. With format VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE each pixel uses 4 subsequent bytes in the string (RGBA). With format VBI_PIXFMT_PAL8 (only available with libzvbi version 0.2.26 or later) each pixel uses one byte (reference into the color palette.)

Input parameters: $fmt is the target format. Currently only VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE is supported (i.e. each pixel uses 4 subsequent bytes for R,G,B,A.) $canvas is a scalar into which the image is written.

$img_pix_width is the distance between canvas pixel lines in pixels. When set to -1, the image width is automatically set to the width of the selected region (i.e. $pg_columns * 12 bytes.)

$col_pix_off and $row_pix_off are offsets to the upper left corner in pixels and define where in the canvas to draw the page section.

$column is the first source column (range 0 ... pg->columns - 1); $row is the first source row (range 0 ... pg->rows - 1); $width is the number of columns to draw, 1 ... pg->columns; $height is the number of rows to draw, 1 ... pg->rows; Note all four values are given as numbers of teletext characters (not pixels.)

Example to draw two pages stacked into one canvas:

  my $fmt = Video::ZVBI::VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE;
  my $canvas = $pg->draw_blank($fmt, 10 * 25 * 2);
  $pg_1->draw_vt_page_region($fmt, $canvas,
                             -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 40, 25);
  $pg_2->draw_vt_page_region($fmt, $canvas,
                             -1, 0, 10 * 25, 0, 0, 40, 25);

Optional parameter $reveal can be set to 1 to draw characters flagged as "concealed" as space (U+0020). Optional parameter $flash_on can be set to 1 to draw characters flagged "blink" (see vbi_char) as space (U+0020). To implement blinking you'll have to draw the page repeatedly with this parameter alternating between 0 and 1.

$canvas = $pg->draw_cc_page($fmt=VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE)

Draw a complete Closed Caption page. Each character occupies 16 x 26 pixels (i.e. a character is 16 pixels wide and each line is 26 pixels high.)

The image is returned in a scalar which contains a byte string. Each pixel uses 4 subsequent bytes in the string (RGBA). Hence the string is 4 * 16 * $pg_columns * 26 * $pg_rows bytes long, where $pg_columns and $pg_rows are the page width and height in Closed Caption characters respectively.

Note this function is just a convenience interface to $pg->draw_cc_page_region() which automatically inserts the page column, row, width and height parameters by querying page dimensions. The image width is set to the page width (i.e. same as when passing value -1 for $img_pix_width)

$pg->draw_cc_page_region($fmt, $canvas, $img_pix_width, $column, $row, $width, $height)

Draw a sub-section of a Closed Caption page. Please refer to $pg->draw_cc_page() and $pg->draw_vt_page_region() for details on parameters and the format of the returned byte string.

$canvas = $pg->draw_blank($fmt, $pix_height, $img_pix_width)

This function can be used to create a blank canvas onto which several Teletext or Closed Caption regions can be drawn later.

All input parameters are optional: $fmt is the target format. Currently only VBI_PIXFMT_RGBA32_LE is supported (i.e. each pixel uses 4 subsequent bytes for R,G,B,A.) $img_pix_width is the distance between canvas pixel lines in pixels. $pix_height is the height of the canvas in pixels (note each Teletext line has 10 pixels and each Closed Caption line 26 pixels when using the above drawing functions.) When omitted, the previous two parameters are derived from the referenced page object.

$xpm = $pg->canvas_to_xpm($canvas [, $fmt, $aspect, $img_pix_width])

This is a helper function which converts the image given in $canvas from a raw byte string into XPM format. Due to the way XPM is specified, the output is a regular text string. (The result is suitable as input to Tk::Pixmap but can also be written into a file for passing the image to external applications.)

Optional boolean parameter $aspect when set to 0, disables the aspect ration correction (i.e. on teletext pages all lines are doubled by default; closed caption output ration is already correct.) Optional parameter $img_pix_width if present, must have the same value as used when drawing the image. If this parameter is omitted or set to -1, the referenced page's full width is assumed (which is suitable for converting images generated by draw_vt_page() or draw_cc_page().)

Note: Since libzvbi 0.2.26, you can also obtain XPM snapshots via the Video::ZVBI::export class.

$txt = $pg->print_page($table=0, $rtl=0)

Print and return the referenced Teletext or Closed Caption page in text form, with rows separated by line-feed characters ("\n"). All character attributes and colors will be lost. Graphics characters, DRCS and all characters not representable in UTF-8 will be replaced by spaces.

When optional parameter $table is set to 1, the page is scanned in table mode, printing all characters within the source rectangle including runs of spaces at the start and end of rows. Else, sequences of spaces at the start and end of rows are collapsed into single spaces and blank lines are suppressed. Optional parameter $rtl is currently ignored; defaults to 0.

$txt = $pg->print_page_region($table, $rtl, $column, $row, $width, $height)

Print and return a sub-section of the referenced Teletext or Closed Caption page in text form, with rows separated by line-feed characters ("\n"). All character attributes and colors will be lost. Graphics characters, DRCS and all characters not representable in UTF-8 will be replaced by spaces.

$table Scan page in table mode, printing all characters within the source rectangle including runs of spaces at the start and end of rows. When 0, scan all characters from position {$column, $row} to {$column + $width - 1, $row + $height - 1} and all intermediate rows to the page's full columns width. In this mode runs of spaces at the start and end of rows are collapsed into single spaces, blank lines are suppressed. Parameter $rtl is currently ignored and should be set to 0.

The next four parameters specify the page region: $column: first source column; $row: first source row; $width: number of columns to print; $height: number of rows to print. You can use $pg->get_page_size() below to determine the allowed ranges for these values, or use $pg->print_page() to print the complete page.

($pgno, $subno) = $pg->get_page_no()

This function returns a list of two scalars which contain the page and sub-page number of the referenced page object.

Teletext page numbers are hexadecimal numbers in the range 0x100 .. 0x8FF, Closed Caption page numbers are in the range 1 .. 8. Sub-page numbers are used for teletext only. These are hexadecimal numbers in range 0x0001 .. 0x3F7F, i.e. the 2nd and 4th digit count from 0..F, the 1st and 3rd only from 0..3 and 0..7 respectively. A sub-page number zero means the page has no sub-pages.

($rows, $columns) = $pg->get_page_size()

This function returns a list of two scalars which contain the dimensions (i.e. row and column count) of the referenced page object.

($y0, $y1, $roll) = $pg->get_page_dirty_range()

To speed up rendering these variables mark the rows which actually changed since the page has been last fetched from cache. $y0 ... $y1 are the first to last row changed, inclusive. $roll indicates the page has been vertically scrolled this number of rows, negative numbers up (towards lower row numbers), positive numbers down. For example -1 means row y0 + 1 ... y1 moved to y0 ... y1 - 1, erasing row $y1 to all spaces.

Practically this is only used in Closed Caption roll-up mode, otherwise all rows are always marked dirty. Clients are free to ignore this information.

$av = $pg->get_page_color_map()

The function returns a reference to an array with 40 entries which contains the page color palette. Each array entry is a 24-bit RGB value (i.e. three 8-bit values for red, green, blue, with red in the lowest bits) To convert this into the usual #RRGGBB syntax use:

  sprintf "#%02X%02X%02X",
          $rgb&0xFF, ($rgb>>8)&0xFF, ($rgb>>16)&0xFF
$av = $pg->get_page_text_properties()

The function returns a reference to an array which contains the properties of all characters on the given page. Each element in the array is a bit-field. The members are (in ascending order, width in bits given behind the colon): foreground:8, background:8, opacity:4, size:4, underline:1, bold:1, italic:1, flash:1, conceal:1, proportional:1, link:1.

$txt = $pg->get_page_text( [$all_chars] )

The function returns the complete page text in form of an UTF-8 string. This function is very similar to $pg->print_page(), but does not insert or remove any characters so that it's guaranteed that characters in the returned string correlate exactly with the array returned by $pg->get_page_text_properties().

Note since UTF-8 is a multi-byte encoding, the length of the string in bytes may be different from the length in characters. Hence you should access the variable with string manipulation functions only (e.g. substr())

When the optional parameter $all_chars is set to 1, even characters on the private Unicode code pages are included. Otherwise these are replaced with blanks. Note use of these characters will cause warnings when passing the string to transcoder functions (such as Perl's encode() or print.)

$href = $pg->vbi_resolve_link($column, $row)

The referenced page $pg (in practice only Teletext pages) may contain hyperlinks such as HTTP URLs, e-mail addresses or links to other pages. Characters being part of a hyperlink have their "link" flag set in the character properties (see $pg->get_page_text_properties()), this function returns a reference to a hash with a more verbose description of the link.

The returned hash contains the following elements (depending on the type of the link not all elements may be present): type, eacem, name, url, script, nuid, pgno, subno, expires, itv_type, priority, autoload.

$href = $pg->vbi_resolve_home()

All Teletext pages have a built-in home link, by default page 100, but can also be the magazine intro page or another page selected by the editor. This function returns a hash reference with the same elements as $pg->vbi_resolve_link().

$pg->unref_page()

This function can be use to de-reference the given page (see also $vt->fetch_vt_page() and $vt->fetch_cc_page()) The call is equivalent to using Perl's undef operator on the page reference (i.e. undef $pg;)

Note use of this operator is deprecated in Perl. It's recommended to instead assign page references to local variables (i.e. declared with my) so that the page is automatically destroyed when the function or block which works on the reference is left.

Video::ZVBI::export ^

Once libzvbi received, decoded and formatted a Teletext or Closed Caption page you will want to render it on screen, print it as text or store it in various formats. libzvbi provides export modules converting a page object into the desired format or rendering directly into an image.

$exp = Video::ZVBI::export::new($keyword, $errstr)

Creates a new export module object to export a VBI page object in the respective module format. As a special service you can initialize options by appending to the $keyword parameter like this: $keyword = "keyword; quality=75.5, comment=\"example text\"";

Note: A quick overview of all export formats and options can be ptained by running the demo script examples/explist.pl in the ZVBI package.

$href = Video::ZVBI::export::info_enum($index)

Enumerates all available export modules. You should start with $index 0, incrementing until the function returns undef. Some modules may depend on machine features or the presence of certain libraries, thus the list can vary from session to session.

On success the function returns a reference to an hash with the following elements: keyword, label, tooltip, mime_type, extension.

$href = Video::ZVBI::export::info_keyword($keyword)

Similar to the above function info_enum(), this function returns info about available modules, although this one searches for an export module which matches $keyword. If no match is found the function returns undef, else a hash reference as described above.

$href = $exp->info_export()

Returns the export module info for the export object referenced by $exp. On success a hash reference as described for the previous two functions is returned.

$href = $exp->option_info_enum($index)

Enumerates the options available for the referenced export module. You should start at $index 0, incrementing until the function returns undef. On success, the function returns a reference to a hash with the following elements: type, keyword, label, min, max, step, def, menu, tooltip.

The content format of min, max, step and def depends on the type, i.e. it may be an integer, double or string - but usually you don't have to worry about that in Perl. If present, menu is an array reference. Elements in the array are of the same type as min, max, etc. If no label or tooltip are available for the option, these elements are undefined.

$href = $exp->option_info_keyword($keyword)

Similar to the above function $exp->option_info_enum() this function returns info about available options, although this one identifies options based on the given $keyword.

$exp->option_set($keyword, $opt)

Sets the value of the option named by $keword to $opt. Returns 0 on failure, 1 on success. Example:

  $exp->option_set('quality', 75.5);

Note the expected type of the option value depends on the keyword. The ZVBI interface module automatically converts the option into type expected by the libzvbi library.

Mind that options of type VBI_OPTION_MENU must be set by menu entry number (integer), all other options by value. If necessary it will be replaced by the closest value possible. Use function $exp->option_menu_set() to set options with menu by menu entry.

$opt = $exp->option_get($keyword)

This function queries and returns the current value of the option named by $keyword. Returns undef upon error.

$exp->option_menu_set($keyword, $entry)

Similar to $exp->option_set() this function sets the value of the option named by $keyword to $entry, however it does so by number of the corresponding menu entry. Naturally this must be an option with menu.

$entry = $exp->option_menu_get($keyword)

Similar to $exp->option_get() this function queries the current value of the option named by $keyword, but returns this value as number of the corresponding menu entry. Naturally this must be an option with menu.

$exp->stdio($io, $pg)

This function writes contents of the page given in $pg, converted to the respective export module format, to the stream $io. The caller is responsible for opening and closing the stream, don't forget to check for I/O errors after closing. Note this function may write incomplete files when an error occurs. The function returns 1 on success, else 0.

You can call this function as many times as you want, it does not change state of the export or page objects.

$exp->file($name, $pg)

This function writes contents of the page given in $pg, converted to the respective export module format, into a new file specified by $name. When an error occurs the file will be deleted. The function returns 1 on success, else 0.

You can call this function as many times as you want, it does not change state of the export or page objects.

$data = $exp->alloc($pg)

This functions renders the page $pg and returns it as a (byte-)string. Returns undef if the function fails.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.26

$size = $exp->mem($data, $pg)

This functions renders the page $pg into scalar $data. The size of the scalar must be large enough to hold all of the data. The result is -1 upon internal errors, or the size of the output. You must check if the size is larger then the length of $data:

  my $sz = $ex->mem($img, $page);
  die "Export failed: ". $exp->errstr() ."\n" if $s < 0;
  die "Export failed: Buffer too small.\n" if $sz > length($img);

Usually you should get the same performance from the $exp->alloc() variant, which has much simpler semantics. Note you can also use $exp->alloc() to determine the size. For image formats without compression the output size will usually be the same for all pages with the same dimensions.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.26

$text = $exp->errstr()

When an export function failed, this function returns a string with a more detailed error description.

Video::ZVBI::search ^

The functions in this section allow to search across one or more Teletext pages in the cache for a given sub-string or a regular expression.

$search = Video::ZVBI::new($vt, $pgno, $subno, $pattern, $casefold=0, $regexp=0, $progress=NULL, $user_data=NULL)

Create a search context and prepare for searching the Teletext page cache with the given expression. Regular expression searching supports the standard set of operators and constants, with these extensions:

Input Parameters: $pgno and $subno specify the number of the first (forward) or last (backward) page to visit. Optionally VBI_ANY_SUBNO can be used for $subno. $pattern contains the search pattern (encoded in UTF-8, but usually you won't have to worry about that when using Perl; use Perl's Encode module to search for characters which are not supported in your current locale.) Boolean $casefold can be set to 1 to make the search case insensitive; default is 0. Boolean $regexp must be set to 1 when the search pattern is a regular expression; default is 0.

If present, $progress can be used to pass a reference to a function which will be called for each scanned page. When the function returns 0, the search is aborted. The callback function receives as only parameter a reference to the search page. Use $pg->get_page_no() to query the page number for a progress display. Note due to internal limitations only 10 search callback functions can be registered in a script at the same time. Callbacks are automatically unregistered when the search object is destroyed.

Note: The referenced page is only valid while inside of the callback function (i.e. you must not assign the reference to a variable outside if the scope of the handler function.)

\x.... or \X....

Hexadecimal number of up to 4 digits

\u.... or \U....

Hexadecimal number of up to 4 digits

:title:

Unicode specific character class

:gfx:

Teletext G1 or G3 graphic

:drcs:

Teletext DRCS

\pN1,N2,...,Nn

Character properties class

\PN1,N2,...,Nn

Negated character properties class

Property definitions:

  1. alphanumeric
  2. alpha
  3. control
  4. digit
  5. graphical
  6. lowercase
  7. printable
  8. punctuation
  9. space
  10. uppercase
  11. hex digit
  12. title
  13. defined
  14. wide
  15. nonspacing
  16. Teletext G1 or G3 graphics
  17. Teletext DRCS

Character classes can contain literals, constants, and character property classes. Example: [abc\U10A\p1,3,4]. Note double height and size characters will match twice, on the upper and lower row, and double width and size characters count as one (reducing the line width) so one can find combinations of normal and enlarged characters.

Note: In a multi-threaded application the data service decoder may receive and cache new pages during a search session. When these page numbers have been visited already the pages are not searched. At a channel switch (and in future at any time) pages can be removed from cache. All this has yet to be addressed.

$status = $search->next($pgref, $dir)

The function starts the search on a previously created search context. Parameter $dir specifies the direction: 1 for forwards, or -1 for backwards search.

The function returns a status code which is one of the following constants:

VBI_SEARCH_ERROR

Pattern not found, pg is invalid. Another vbi_search_next() will restart from the original starting point.

VBI_SEARCH_CACHE_EMPTY

No pages in the cache, pg is invalid.

VBI_SEARCH_CANCELED

The search has been canceled by the progress function. $pg points to the current page as in success case, except for the highlighting. Another $search->next() continues from this page.

VBI_SEARCH_NOT_FOUND

Some error occurred, condition unclear.

VBI_SEARCH_SUCCESS

Pattern found. $pgref points to the page ready for display with the pattern highlighted.

If and only if the function returns VBI_SEARCH_SUCCESS, $pgref is set to a reference to the matching page.

Miscellaneous (Video::ZVBI) ^

lib_version()

Returns the version of the ZVBI library.

set_log_fn($mask [, $log_fn [, $user_data ]] )

Various functions can print warnings, errors and information useful to debug the library. With this function you can enable these messages and determine a function to print them. (Note: The kind and contents of messages logged by particular functions may change in the future.)

Parameters: $mask specifies which kind of information to log. It's a bit-wise OR of zero or more of the constants VBI_LOG_ERROR, VBI_LOG_WARNING, VBI_LOG_NOTICE, VBI_LOG_INFO, VBI_LOG_DEBUG, VBI_LOG_DRIVER, VBI_LOG_DEBUG2, VBI_LOG_DEBUG3. $log_fn is a reference to a function to be called with log messages. Omit this parameter to disable logging.

The log handler is called with the following parameters: level is one of the VBI_LOG_* constants; $context which is a text string describing the module where the event occurred; $message the actual error message; finally, if passed during callback definition, a $user_data parameter.

Note only 10 event log functions can be registered in a script at the same time.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.22

set_log_on_stderr($mask)

This function enables error logging just like set_log_fn(), but uses the library's internal log function which prints all messages to stderr, i.e. on the terminal. $mask is a bit-wise OR of zero or more of the VBI_LOG_* constants. The mask specifies which kind of information to log.

To disable logging call set_log_fn(0), i.e. without passing a callback function reference.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.22

par8(val)

This function encodes the given 7-bit value with Parity. The result is an 8-bit value in the range 0..255.

unpar8(val)

This function decodes the given Parity encoded 8-bit value. The result is a 7-bit value in the range 0...127 or a negative value when a parity error is detected. (Note: to decode parity while ignoring errors, simply mask out the highest bit, i.e. $val &= 0x7F)

par_str(data)

This function encodes a string with parity in place, i.e. the given string contains the result after the call.

unpar_str(data)

This function decodes a Parity encoded string in place, i.e. the parity bit is removed from all characters in the given string. The result is negative when a decoding error is detected, else the result is positive or zero.

rev8(val)

This function reverses the order of all bits of the given 8-bit value and returns the result. This conversion is required for decoding certain teletext elements which are transmitted MSB first instead of the usual LSB first (the teletext VBI slicer already inverts the bit order so that LSB are in bit #0)

rev16(val)

This function reverses the order of all bits of the given 16-bit value and returns the result.

rev16p(data, offset=0)

This function reverses 2 bytes from the string representation of the given scalar at the given offset and returns them as a numerical value.

ham8(val)

This function encodes the given 4-bit value (i.e. range 0..15) with Hamming-8/4. The result is an 8-bit value in the range 0..255.

unham8(val)

This function decodes the given Hamming-8/4 encoded value. The result is a 4-bit value, or -1 when there are uncorrectable errors.

unham16p(data, offset=0)

This function decodes 2 Hamming-8/4 encoded bytes (taken from the string in parameter "data" at the given offset) The result is an 8-bit value, or -1 when there are uncorrectable errors.

unham24p(data, offset=0)

This function decodes 3 Hamming-24/18 encoded bytes (taken from the string in parameter "data" at the given offset) The result is an 8-bit value, or -1 when there are uncorrectable errors.

dec2bcd($dec)

Converts a two's complement binary in range 0 ... 999 into a packed BCD number (binary coded decimal) in range 0x000 ... 0x999. Extra digits in the input are discarded.

$dec = bcd2dec($bcd)

Converts a packed BCD number in range 0x000 ... 0xFFF into a two's complement binary in range 0 ... 999. Extra digits in the input will be discarded.

add_bcd($bcd1, $bcd2)

Adds two packed BCD numbers, returning a packed BCD sum. Arguments and result are in range 0xF0000000 ... 0x09999999, that is -10**7 ... +10**7 - 1 in decimal notation. To subtract you can add the 10's complement, e. g. -1 = 0xF9999999.

The return value is a packed BCD number. The result is undefined when any of the arguments contain hex digits 0xA ... 0xF.

is_bcd($bcd)

Tests if $bcd forms a valid BCD number. The argument must be in range 0x00000000 ... 0x09999999. Return value is 0 if $bcd contains hex digits 0xA ... 0xF.

vbi_decode_vps_cni(data)

This function receives a sliced VPS line and returns a 16-bit CNI value, or undef in case of errors.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.22

vbi_encode_vps_cni(cni)

This function receives a 16-bit CNI value and returns a VPS line, or undef in case of errors.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.22

rating_string($auth, $id)

Translate a program rating code given by $auth and $id into a Latin-1 string, native language. Returns undef if this code is undefined. The input parameters will usually originate from $ev->{rating_auth} and $ev->{rating_id} in an event struct passed for a data service decoder event of type VBI_EVENT_PROG_INFO.

prog_type_string($classf, $id)

Translate a vbi_program_info program type code into a Latin-1 string, currently English only. Returns undef if this code is undefined. The input parameters will usually originate from $ev->{type_classf} and array members @$ev->{type_id} in an event struct passed for a data service decoder event of type VBI_EVENT_PROG_INFO.

$str = iconv_caption($src [, $repl_char] )

Converts a string of EIA 608 Closed Caption characters to UTF-8. The function ignores parity bits and the bytes 0x00 ... 0x1F, except for two-byte special and extended characters (e.g. music note 0x11 0x37) See also caption_unicode().

Returns the converted string $src, or undef when the source buffer contains invalid two byte characters, or when the conversion fails, when it runs out of memory.

Optional parameter $repl_char when present specifies an UCS-2 replacement for characters which are not representable in UTF-8 (i.e. a 16-bit value - use Perl's ord() to obtain a character's code value.) When omitted or zero, the function will fail if the source buffer contains unrepresentable characters.

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.23

$str = caption_unicode($c [, $to_upper] )

Converts a single Closed Caption character code into an UTF-8 string. Codes in range 0x1130 to 0x1B3F are special and extended characters (e.g. caption command 11 37).

Input character codes in $c are in range

  0x0020 ... 0x007F,
  0x1130 ... 0x113F, 0x1930 ... 0x193F, 0x1220 ... 0x123F,
  0x1A20 ... 0x1A3F, 0x1320 ... 0x133F, 0x1B20 ... 0x1B3F.

When the optional $to_upper is set to 1, the character is converted into upper case. (Often programs are captioned in all upper case, but except for one character the basic and special CC character sets contain only lower case accented characters.)

Available: since libzvbi version 0.2.23

EXAMPLES ^

The examples sub-directory in the Video::ZVBI package contains a number of scripts used to test the various interface functions. You can also use them as examples for your code:

capture.pl

This is a translation of test/capture.c in the libzvbi package. The script captures sliced VBI data from a device. Output can be written to a file or passed via stdout into one of the following example scripts. Call with option --help for a list of options.

decode.pl

This is a direct translation of test/decode.c in the libzvbi package. Decodes sliced VBI data on stdin, e. g.

  ./capture --sliced | ./decode --ttx

Call with option --help for a list of options.

caption.pl

This is a translation of test/caption.c in the libzvbi package, albeit based on Perl::Tk here. When called without an input stream, the application displays some sample messages (character sets etc.) for debugging the decoder. When the input stream is the output of capture.pl --sliced (see above), the applications displays the live CC stream received from a VBI device. The buttons on top switch between Closed Caption channels 1-4 and Text channels 1-4.

export.pl

This is a direct translation of test/export.c in the libzvbi package. The script captures from /dev/vbi0 until the page specified on the command line is found and then exports the page in a requested format.

explist.pl

This is a direct translation of test/explist.c in the libzvbi package. Test of page export options and menu interfaces. The script lists all available export modules (i.e. formats) and options.

hamm.pl

This is a direct translation of test/hamm.c in the libzvbi package. Automated test of the odd parity and Hamming encoder and decoder functions.

network.pl

This is a direct translation of examples/network.c in the libzvbi package. The script captures from /dev/vbi0 until the currently tuned channel is identified by means of VPS, PDC et.al.

proxy-test.pl

This is a direct translation of test/proxy-test.c in the libzvbi package. The script can capture either from a proxy daemon or a local device and dumps captured data on the terminal. Also allows changing services and channels during capturing (e.g. by entering "+ttx" or "-ttx" on stdin.) Start with option -help for a list of supported command line options.

test-vps.pl

This is a direct translation of test/test-vps.c in the libzvbi package. It contains tests for encoding and decoding the VPS data service on randomly generated data.

search-ttx.pl

The script is used to test search on teletext pages. The script captures from /dev/vbi0 until the RETURN key is pressed, then prompts for a search string. The content of matching pages is printed on the terminal and capturing continues until a new search text is entered.

browse-ttx.pl

The script captures from /dev/vbi0 and displays teletext pages in a small GUI using Perl::Tk.

osc.pl

This script is loosely based on test/osc.c in the libzvbi package. The script captures raw VBI data from a device and displays the data as an animated gray-scale image. One selected line is plotted and the decoded teletext or VPS Data of that line is shown.

dvb-mux.pl

This script is a small example for use of the DVD multiplexer functions (available since libzvbi 0.2.26) The scripts captures teletext from an analog VBI device and generates a PES or TS stream on STDOUT.

AUTHORS ^

The ZVBI Perl interface module was written by Tom Zoerner <tomzo@sourceforge.net> starting March 2006 for the Teletext EPG grabber accompanying nxtvepg http://nxtvepg.sourceforge.net/

The module is based on the libzvbi library, mainly written and maintained by Michael H. Schimek (2000-2007) and Iñaki García Etxebarria (2000-2001), which in turn is based on AleVT 1.5.1 by Edgar Toernig (1998-1999). See also http://zapping.sourceforge.net/

COPYING ^

Copyright (C) 2007 Tom Zoerner.

Parts of the descriptions in this man page are copied from the "libzvbi" documentation, licensed under the GNU General Public License version 2 or later, Copyright (C) 2000-2007 Michael H. Schimek, Copyright (C) 2000-2001 Iñaki García Etxebarria, Copyright (C) 2003-2004 Tom Zoerner.

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

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