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NAME ^

perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction

DESCRIPTION ^

This document gives a general idea of Unicode and how to use Unicode in Perl. See "Further Resources" for references to more in-depth treatments of Unicode.

Unicode

Unicode is a character set standard which plans to codify all of the writing systems of the world, plus many other symbols.

Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 are coordinated standards that unify almost all other modern character set standards, covering more than 80 writing systems and hundreds of languages, including all commercially-important modern languages. All characters in the largest Chinese, Japanese, and Korean dictionaries are also encoded. The standards will eventually cover almost all characters in more than 250 writing systems and thousands of languages. Unicode 1.0 was released in October 1991, and 6.0 in October 2010.

A Unicode character is an abstract entity. It is not bound to any particular integer width, especially not to the C language char. Unicode is language-neutral and display-neutral: it does not encode the language of the text, and it does not generally define fonts or other graphical layout details. Unicode operates on characters and on text built from those characters.

Unicode defines characters like LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A or GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA and unique numbers for the characters, in this case 0x0041 and 0x03B1, respectively. These unique numbers are called code points. A code point is essentially the position of the character within the set of all possible Unicode characters, and thus in Perl, the term ordinal is often used interchangeably with it.

The Unicode standard prefers using hexadecimal notation for the code points. If numbers like 0x0041 are unfamiliar to you, take a peek at a later section, "Hexadecimal Notation". The Unicode standard uses the notation U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A, to give the hexadecimal code point and the normative name of the character.

Unicode also defines various properties for the characters, like "uppercase" or "lowercase", "decimal digit", or "punctuation"; these properties are independent of the names of the characters. Furthermore, various operations on the characters like uppercasing, lowercasing, and collating (sorting) are defined.

A Unicode logical "character" can actually consist of more than one internal actual "character" or code point. For Western languages, this is adequately modelled by a base character (like LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A) followed by one or more modifiers (like COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT). This sequence of base character and modifiers is called a combining character sequence. Some non-western languages require more complicated models, so Unicode created the grapheme cluster concept, which was later further refined into the extended grapheme cluster. For example, a Korean Hangul syllable is considered a single logical character, but most often consists of three actual Unicode characters: a leading consonant followed by an interior vowel followed by a trailing consonant.

Whether to call these extended grapheme clusters "characters" depends on your point of view. If you are a programmer, you probably would tend towards seeing each element in the sequences as one unit, or "character". However from the user's point of view, the whole sequence could be seen as one "character" since that's probably what it looks like in the context of the user's language. In this document, we take the programmer's point of view: one "character" is one Unicode code point.

For some combinations of base character and modifiers, there are precomposed characters. There is a single character equivalent, for example, to the sequence LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT. It is called LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE. These precomposed characters are, however, only available for some combinations, and are mainly meant to support round-trip conversions between Unicode and legacy standards (like ISO 8859). Using sequences, as Unicode does, allows for needing fewer basic building blocks (code points) to express many more potential grapheme clusters. To support conversion between equivalent forms, various normalization forms are also defined. Thus, LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE is in Normalization Form Composed, (abbreviated NFC), and the sequence LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT represents the same character in Normalization Form Decomposed (NFD).

Because of backward compatibility with legacy encodings, the "a unique number for every character" idea breaks down a bit: instead, there is "at least one number for every character". The same character could be represented differently in several legacy encodings. The converse is not also true: some code points do not have an assigned character. Firstly, there are unallocated code points within otherwise used blocks. Secondly, there are special Unicode control characters that do not represent true characters.

When Unicode was first conceived, it was thought that all the world's characters could be represented using a 16-bit word; that is a maximum of 0x10000 (or 65536) characters from 0x0000 to 0xFFFF would be needed. This soon proved to be false, and since Unicode 2.0 (July 1996), Unicode has been defined all the way up to 21 bits (0x10FFFF), and Unicode 3.1 (March 2001) defined the first characters above 0xFFFF. The first 0x10000 characters are called the Plane 0, or the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). With Unicode 3.1, 17 (yes, seventeen) planes in all were defined--but they are nowhere near full of defined characters, yet.

When a new language is being encoded, Unicode generally will choose a block of consecutive unallocated code points for its characters. So far, the number of code points in these blocks has always been evenly divisible by 16. Extras in a block, not currently needed, are left unallocated, for future growth. But there have been occasions when a later relase needed more code points than the available extras, and a new block had to allocated somewhere else, not contiguous to the initial one, to handle the overflow. Thus, it became apparent early on that "block" wasn't an adequate organizing principal, and so the Script property was created. (Later an improved script property was added as well, the Script_Extensions property.) Those code points that are in overflow blocks can still have the same script as the original ones. The script concept fits more closely with natural language: there is Latin script, Greek script, and so on; and there are several artificial scripts, like Common for characters that are used in multiple scripts, such as mathematical symbols. Scripts usually span varied parts of several blocks. For more information about scripts, see "Scripts" in perlunicode. The division into blocks exists, but it is almost completely accidental--an artifact of how the characters have been and still are allocated. (Note that this paragraph has oversimplified things for the sake of this being an introduction. Unicode doesn't really encode languages, but the writing systems for them--their scripts; and one script can be used by many languages. Unicode also encodes things that aren't really about languages, such as symbols like BAGGAGE CLAIM.)

The Unicode code points are just abstract numbers. To input and output these abstract numbers, the numbers must be encoded or serialised somehow. Unicode defines several character encoding forms, of which UTF-8 is perhaps the most popular. UTF-8 is a variable length encoding that encodes Unicode characters as 1 to 6 bytes. Other encodings include UTF-16 and UTF-32 and their big- and little-endian variants (UTF-8 is byte-order independent) The ISO/IEC 10646 defines the UCS-2 and UCS-4 encoding forms.

For more information about encodings--for instance, to learn what surrogates and byte order marks (BOMs) are--see perlunicode.

Perl's Unicode Support

Starting from Perl v5.6.0, Perl has had the capacity to handle Unicode natively. Perl v5.8.0, however, is the first recommended release for serious Unicode work. The maintenance release 5.6.1 fixed many of the problems of the initial Unicode implementation, but for example regular expressions still do not work with Unicode in 5.6.1. Perl v5.14.0 is the first release where Unicode support is (almost) seamlessly integrable without some gotchas (the exception being some differences in quotemeta, which is fixed starting in Perl 5.16.0). To enable this seamless support, you should use feature 'unicode_strings' (which is automatically selected if you use 5.012 or higher). See feature. (5.14 also fixes a number of bugs and departures from the Unicode standard.)

Before Perl v5.8.0, the use of use utf8 was used to declare that operations in the current block or file would be Unicode-aware. This model was found to be wrong, or at least clumsy: the "Unicodeness" is now carried with the data, instead of being attached to the operations. Starting with Perl v5.8.0, only one case remains where an explicit use utf8 is needed: if your Perl script itself is encoded in UTF-8, you can use UTF-8 in your identifier names, and in string and regular expression literals, by saying use utf8. This is not the default because scripts with legacy 8-bit data in them would break. See utf8.

Perl's Unicode Model

Perl supports both pre-5.6 strings of eight-bit native bytes, and strings of Unicode characters. The general principle is that Perl tries to keep its data as eight-bit bytes for as long as possible, but as soon as Unicodeness cannot be avoided, the data is transparently upgraded to Unicode. Prior to Perl v5.14.0, the upgrade was not completely transparent (see "The "Unicode Bug"" in perlunicode), and for backwards compatibility, full transparency is not gained unless use feature 'unicode_strings' (see feature) or use 5.012 (or higher) is selected.

Internally, Perl currently uses either whatever the native eight-bit character set of the platform (for example Latin-1) is, defaulting to UTF-8, to encode Unicode strings. Specifically, if all code points in the string are 0xFF or less, Perl uses the native eight-bit character set. Otherwise, it uses UTF-8.

A user of Perl does not normally need to know nor care how Perl happens to encode its internal strings, but it becomes relevant when outputting Unicode strings to a stream without a PerlIO layer (one with the "default" encoding). In such a case, the raw bytes used internally (the native character set or UTF-8, as appropriate for each string) will be used, and a "Wide character" warning will be issued if those strings contain a character beyond 0x00FF.

For example,

      perl -e 'print "\x{DF}\n", "\x{0100}\x{DF}\n"'

produces a fairly useless mixture of native bytes and UTF-8, as well as a warning:

     Wide character in print at ...

To output UTF-8, use the :encoding or :utf8 output layer. Prepending

      binmode(STDOUT, ":utf8");

to this sample program ensures that the output is completely UTF-8, and removes the program's warning.

You can enable automatic UTF-8-ification of your standard file handles, default open() layer, and @ARGV by using either the -C command line switch or the PERL_UNICODE environment variable, see perlrun for the documentation of the -C switch.

Note that this means that Perl expects other software to work the same way: if Perl has been led to believe that STDIN should be UTF-8, but then STDIN coming in from another command is not UTF-8, Perl will likely complain about the malformed UTF-8.

All features that combine Unicode and I/O also require using the new PerlIO feature. Almost all Perl 5.8 platforms do use PerlIO, though: you can see whether yours is by running "perl -V" and looking for useperlio=define.

Unicode and EBCDIC

Perl 5.8.0 also supports Unicode on EBCDIC platforms. There, Unicode support is somewhat more complex to implement since additional conversions are needed at every step.

Later Perl releases have added code that will not work on EBCDIC platforms, and no one has complained, so the divergence has continued. If you want to run Perl on an EBCDIC platform, send email to perlbug@perl.org

On EBCDIC platforms, the internal Unicode encoding form is UTF-EBCDIC instead of UTF-8. The difference is that as UTF-8 is "ASCII-safe" in that ASCII characters encode to UTF-8 as-is, while UTF-EBCDIC is "EBCDIC-safe".

Creating Unicode

To create Unicode characters in literals for code points above 0xFF, use the \x{...} notation in double-quoted strings:

    my $smiley = "\x{263a}";

Similarly, it can be used in regular expression literals

    $smiley =~ /\x{263a}/;

At run-time you can use chr():

    my $hebrew_alef = chr(0x05d0);

See "Further Resources" for how to find all these numeric codes.

Naturally, ord() will do the reverse: it turns a character into a code point.

Note that \x.. (no {} and only two hexadecimal digits), \x{...}, and chr(...) for arguments less than 0x100 (decimal 256) generate an eight-bit character for backward compatibility with older Perls. For arguments of 0x100 or more, Unicode characters are always produced. If you want to force the production of Unicode characters regardless of the numeric value, use pack("U", ...) instead of \x.., \x{...}, or chr().

You can invoke characters by name in double-quoted strings:

    my $arabic_alef = "\N{ARABIC LETTER ALEF}";

And, as mentioned above, you can also pack() numbers into Unicode characters:

   my $georgian_an  = pack("U", 0x10a0);

Note that both \x{...} and \N{...} are compile-time string constants: you cannot use variables in them. if you want similar run-time functionality, use chr() and charnames::string_vianame().

If you want to force the result to Unicode characters, use the special "U0" prefix. It consumes no arguments but causes the following bytes to be interpreted as the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode characters:

   my $chars = pack("U0W*", 0x80, 0x42);

Likewise, you can stop such UTF-8 interpretation by using the special "C0" prefix.

Handling Unicode

Handling Unicode is for the most part transparent: just use the strings as usual. Functions like index(), length(), and substr() will work on the Unicode characters; regular expressions will work on the Unicode characters (see perlunicode and perlretut).

Note that Perl considers grapheme clusters to be separate characters, so for example

 print length("\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A}\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}"),
       "\n";

will print 2, not 1. The only exception is that regular expressions have \X for matching an extended grapheme cluster. (Thus \X in a regular expression would match the entire sequence of both the example characters.)

Life is not quite so transparent, however, when working with legacy encodings, I/O, and certain special cases:

Legacy Encodings

When you combine legacy data and Unicode, the legacy data needs to be upgraded to Unicode. Normally the legacy data is assumed to be ISO 8859-1 (or EBCDIC, if applicable).

The Encode module knows about many encodings and has interfaces for doing conversions between those encodings:

    use Encode 'decode';
    $data = decode("iso-8859-3", $data); # convert from legacy to utf-8

Unicode I/O

Normally, writing out Unicode data

    print FH $some_string_with_unicode, "\n";

produces raw bytes that Perl happens to use to internally encode the Unicode string. Perl's internal encoding depends on the system as well as what characters happen to be in the string at the time. If any of the characters are at code points 0x100 or above, you will get a warning. To ensure that the output is explicitly rendered in the encoding you desire--and to avoid the warning--open the stream with the desired encoding. Some examples:

    open FH, ">:utf8", "file";

    open FH, ">:encoding(ucs2)",      "file";
    open FH, ">:encoding(UTF-8)",     "file";
    open FH, ">:encoding(shift_jis)", "file";

and on already open streams, use binmode():

    binmode(STDOUT, ":utf8");

    binmode(STDOUT, ":encoding(ucs2)");
    binmode(STDOUT, ":encoding(UTF-8)");
    binmode(STDOUT, ":encoding(shift_jis)");

The matching of encoding names is loose: case does not matter, and many encodings have several aliases. Note that the :utf8 layer must always be specified exactly like that; it is not subject to the loose matching of encoding names. Also note that currently :utf8 is unsafe for input, because it accepts the data without validating that it is indeed valid UTF-8; you should instead use :encoding(utf-8) (with or without a hyphen).

See PerlIO for the :utf8 layer, PerlIO::encoding and Encode::PerlIO for the :encoding() layer, and Encode::Supported for many encodings supported by the Encode module.

Reading in a file that you know happens to be encoded in one of the Unicode or legacy encodings does not magically turn the data into Unicode in Perl's eyes. To do that, specify the appropriate layer when opening files

    open(my $fh,'<:encoding(utf8)', 'anything');
    my $line_of_unicode = <$fh>;

    open(my $fh,'<:encoding(Big5)', 'anything');
    my $line_of_unicode = <$fh>;

The I/O layers can also be specified more flexibly with the open pragma. See open, or look at the following example.

    use open ':encoding(utf8)'; # input/output default encoding will be
                                # UTF-8
    open X, ">file";
    print X chr(0x100), "\n";
    close X;
    open Y, "<file";
    printf "%#x\n", ord(<Y>); # this should print 0x100
    close Y;

With the open pragma you can use the :locale layer

    BEGIN { $ENV{LC_ALL} = $ENV{LANG} = 'ru_RU.KOI8-R' }
    # the :locale will probe the locale environment variables like
    # LC_ALL
    use open OUT => ':locale'; # russki parusski
    open(O, ">koi8");
    print O chr(0x430); # Unicode CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A = KOI8-R 0xc1
    close O;
    open(I, "<koi8");
    printf "%#x\n", ord(<I>), "\n"; # this should print 0xc1
    close I;

These methods install a transparent filter on the I/O stream that converts data from the specified encoding when it is read in from the stream. The result is always Unicode.

The open pragma affects all the open() calls after the pragma by setting default layers. If you want to affect only certain streams, use explicit layers directly in the open() call.

You can switch encodings on an already opened stream by using binmode(); see "binmode" in perlfunc.

The :locale does not currently work with open() and binmode(), only with the open pragma. The :utf8 and :encoding(...) methods do work with all of open(), binmode(), and the open pragma.

Similarly, you may use these I/O layers on output streams to automatically convert Unicode to the specified encoding when it is written to the stream. For example, the following snippet copies the contents of the file "text.jis" (encoded as ISO-2022-JP, aka JIS) to the file "text.utf8", encoded as UTF-8:

    open(my $nihongo, '<:encoding(iso-2022-jp)', 'text.jis');
    open(my $unicode, '>:utf8',                  'text.utf8');
    while (<$nihongo>) { print $unicode $_ }

The naming of encodings, both by the open() and by the open pragma allows for flexible names: koi8-r and KOI8R will both be understood.

Common encodings recognized by ISO, MIME, IANA, and various other standardisation organisations are recognised; for a more detailed list see Encode::Supported.

read() reads characters and returns the number of characters. seek() and tell() operate on byte counts, as do sysread() and sysseek().

Notice that because of the default behaviour of not doing any conversion upon input if there is no default layer, it is easy to mistakenly write code that keeps on expanding a file by repeatedly encoding the data:

    # BAD CODE WARNING
    open F, "file";
    local $/; ## read in the whole file of 8-bit characters
    $t = <F>;
    close F;
    open F, ">:encoding(utf8)", "file";
    print F $t; ## convert to UTF-8 on output
    close F;

If you run this code twice, the contents of the file will be twice UTF-8 encoded. A use open ':encoding(utf8)' would have avoided the bug, or explicitly opening also the file for input as UTF-8.

NOTE: the :utf8 and :encoding features work only if your Perl has been built with the new PerlIO feature (which is the default on most systems).

Displaying Unicode As Text

Sometimes you might want to display Perl scalars containing Unicode as simple ASCII (or EBCDIC) text. The following subroutine converts its argument so that Unicode characters with code points greater than 255 are displayed as \x{...}, control characters (like \n) are displayed as \x.., and the rest of the characters as themselves:

 sub nice_string {
     join("",
       map { $_ > 255 ?                  # if wide character...
              sprintf("\\x{%04X}", $_) :  # \x{...}
              chr($_) =~ /[[:cntrl:]]/ ?  # else if control character...
              sprintf("\\x%02X", $_) :    # \x..
              quotemeta(chr($_))          # else quoted or as themselves
         } unpack("W*", $_[0]));           # unpack Unicode characters
   }

For example,

   nice_string("foo\x{100}bar\n")

returns the string

   'foo\x{0100}bar\x0A'

which is ready to be printed.

Special Cases

Advanced Topics

Miscellaneous

Questions With Answers

Hexadecimal Notation

The Unicode standard prefers using hexadecimal notation because that more clearly shows the division of Unicode into blocks of 256 characters. Hexadecimal is also simply shorter than decimal. You can use decimal notation, too, but learning to use hexadecimal just makes life easier with the Unicode standard. The U+HHHH notation uses hexadecimal, for example.

The 0x prefix means a hexadecimal number, the digits are 0-9 and a-f (or A-F, case doesn't matter). Each hexadecimal digit represents four bits, or half a byte. print 0x..., "\n" will show a hexadecimal number in decimal, and printf "%x\n", $decimal will show a decimal number in hexadecimal. If you have just the "hex digits" of a hexadecimal number, you can use the hex() function.

    print 0x0009, "\n";    # 9
    print 0x000a, "\n";    # 10
    print 0x000f, "\n";    # 15
    print 0x0010, "\n";    # 16
    print 0x0011, "\n";    # 17
    print 0x0100, "\n";    # 256

    print 0x0041, "\n";    # 65

    printf "%x\n",  65;    # 41
    printf "%#x\n", 65;    # 0x41

    print hex("41"), "\n"; # 65

Further Resources

UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS ^

If you cannot upgrade your Perl to 5.8.0 or later, you can still do some Unicode processing by using the modules Unicode::String, Unicode::Map8, and Unicode::Map, available from CPAN. If you have the GNU recode installed, you can also use the Perl front-end Convert::Recode for character conversions.

The following are fast conversions from ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) bytes to UTF-8 bytes and back, the code works even with older Perl 5 versions.

    # ISO 8859-1 to UTF-8
    s/([\x80-\xFF])/chr(0xC0|ord($1)>>6).chr(0x80|ord($1)&0x3F)/eg;

    # UTF-8 to ISO 8859-1
    s/([\xC2\xC3])([\x80-\xBF])/chr(ord($1)<<6&0xC0|ord($2)&0x3F)/eg;

SEE ALSO ^

perlunitut, perlunicode, Encode, open, utf8, bytes, perlretut, perlrun, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Unicode::UCD

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ^

Thanks to the kind readers of the perl5-porters@perl.org, perl-unicode@perl.org, linux-utf8@nl.linux.org, and unicore@unicode.org mailing lists for their valuable feedback.

AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE ^

Copyright 2001-2011 Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>

This document may be distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.

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