Tore Aursand > URL-Normalize-0.14 > URL::Normalize

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Module Version: 0.14   Source   Latest Release: URL-Normalize-0.16

NAME ^

URL::Normalize - Normalize/optimize URLs.

VERSION ^

Version 0.14

SYNOPSIS ^

    use URL::Normalize;

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/display?lang=en&article=fred',
    );

    # ...or

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url  => '/display?lang=en&article=fred',
        base => 'http://www.example.com',
    );

    # Get a normalized URL back

    $Normalizer->do_all(); # Perform all the normalizations available

    print $Normalizer->get_url();

DESCRIPTION ^

This is NOT a perfect solution. If you normalize a URL using all the methods in this module, there is a high probability that the URL will "stop working". This is merely a helper module for those of you who wants to either normalize a URL using only a few of the safer methods, and/or for those of you who wants to generate a unique "ID" from any given URL.

When writing a web crawler, for example, it's always very costly to check if a URL has been fetched/seen when you have millions or billions of URLs in a sort of database. This module can help you create a unique "ID", which you then can use as a key in a key/value-store; the key is the normalized URL, whereas all the URLs that converts to the normalized URL are part of the value (normally an array or hash);

    'http://www.example.com/' = {
        'http://www.example.com:80/'        => 1,
        'http://www.example.com/index.html' => 1,
        'http://www.example.com/?'          => 1,
    }

Above, all the URLs inside the hash normalizes to the key if you run these methods:

CONSTRUCTORS ^

new( %opts )

Constructs a new URL::Normalize object. Takes a hash as input argument;

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url  => '/foobar.html',            # required
        base => 'http://www.example.com/', # optional
    );

METHODS ^

get_URI()

Returns the URI object representing the current state of the URL.

get_url()

Returns the current URL.

get_base()

Returns the current base.

make_canonical()

Just a shortcut for URI::URL->new()->canonical()->as_string(), and involves the following steps (at least):

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/%7Eusername/',
    );

    $Normalize->make_canonical();

    print $Normalize->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/~username/

remove_dot_segments()

The segments ".." and "." will be removed from the URL according to the algorithm described in RFC 3986.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/../a/b/../c/./d.html',
    );

    $Normalize->remove_dot_segments();

    print $Normalize->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/a/c/d.html

remove_directory_index()

Removes well-known directory indexes, eg. "index.html", "default.asp" etc.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/index.cgi?foo=/',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_directory_index();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/?foo=/

You are free to modify the global $DIRECTORY_INDEX_REGEXPS arrayref to your own fitting:

    $URL::Normalize::DIRECTORY_INDEX_REGEXPS = [ ... ];

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/index.cgi?foo=/',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_directory_index();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # whatever

sort_query_parameters()

Sorts the query parameters alphabetically.

Uppercased parameters will be lower cased during sorting only, and if there are multiple values for a parameter, the key/value-pairs will be sorted as well.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/?b=2&c=3&a=0&A=1',
    );

    $Normalizer->sort_query_parameters();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/?a=0&A=1&b=2&c=3

remove_duplicate_query_parameters()

Removes duplicate query parameters, ie. where the key/value combination is identical with another key/value combination.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/?a=1&a=2&b=4&a=1&c=4',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_duplicate_query_parameters();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/?a=1&a=2&b=3&c=4

remove_empty_query_parameters()

Removes empty query parameters, ie. where there are keys with no value.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/?a=1&b=&c=3',
    );

    $Normalize->remove_empty_query_parameters();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/?a=1&c=3

remove_empty_query()

Removes empty query from the URL.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/foo?',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_empty_query();

    print $Normalize->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/foo

remove_fragment()

Removes fragments from the URL.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/bar.html#section1',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_fragment();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/bar.html

remove_duplicate_slashes()

Remove duplicate slashes from the URL.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/foo//bar.html',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_duplicate_slashes();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://www.example.com/foo/bar.html

remove_hostname_prefix()

Removes 'www' followed by a potential number before the actual hostname.

Example:

    my $Normalizer = URL::Normalize->new(
        url => 'http://www.example.com/',
    );

    $Normalizer->remove_hostname_prefix();

    print $Normalizer->get_url(); # http://example.com/

do_all()

Performs all of the normalization methods mentioned above.

PERFORMANCE ^

There's probably possible to improve the performance of this module considerably, but as premature optimization is evil, I'll wait until the functionality and API is stable.

On my MacBook Pro (2.66GHz i7, 8GB RAM) running Perl 5.14.2, I'm able to run the do_all() method on more than 1,100 URLs per second. This is just a number, as the performance depends on the complexity of the URL.

SEE ALSO ^

AUTHOR ^

Tore Aursand, <toreau at gmail.com>

BUGS ^

Please report any bugs or feature requests to the web interface at https://github.com/toreau/url-normalize/issues/new.

SUPPORT ^

You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

    perldoc URL::Normalize

You can also look for information at:

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright 2012-2013 Tore Aursand.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the the Artistic License (2.0). You may obtain a copy of the full license at:

http://www.perlfoundation.org/artistic_license_2_0

Any use, modification, and distribution of the Standard or Modified Versions is governed by this Artistic License. By using, modifying or distributing the Package, you accept this license. Do not use, modify, or distribute the Package, if you do not accept this license.

If your Modified Version has been derived from a Modified Version made by someone other than you, you are nevertheless required to ensure that your Modified Version complies with the requirements of this license.

This license does not grant you the right to use any trademark, service mark, tradename, or logo of the Copyright Holder.

This license includes the non-exclusive, worldwide, free-of-charge patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import and otherwise transfer the Package with respect to any patent claims licensable by the Copyright Holder that are necessarily infringed by the Package. If you institute patent litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim) against any party alleging that the Package constitutes direct or contributory patent infringement, then this Artistic License to you shall terminate on the date that such litigation is filed.

Disclaimer of Warranty: THE PACKAGE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS' AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT ARE DISCLAIMED TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY YOUR LOCAL LAW. UNLESS REQUIRED BY LAW, NO COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTOR WILL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THE PACKAGE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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