Gordon Van Amburg > VANAMBURG-SEMPROG-SimpleGraph-0.010 > VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph

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Module Version: 0.010   Source  

SYNOPSIS ^

A Perl interpretation of the SimpleGraph developed in Python by Toby Segaran in his book "Programming the Semantic Web", published by O'Reilly, 2009. CPAN modules are used in place of the Python standard library modules used by Mr. Segaran.

    my $graph = VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph->new();

    $graph->load("data/place_triples.txt");

    $graph->add("Morgan Stanley", "headquarters", "New_York_New_York");

    my @sanfran_key = $graph->value(undef,'name','San Francisco');

    my @sanfran_triples = $graph->triples($sanfram_key, undef, undef);

    my @bindings = $g->query([
       ['?company', 'headquarters', 'New_York_New_York'],
       ['?company', 'industry',     'Investment Banking'],
       ['?contrib', 'contributor',  '?company'],
       ['?contrib', 'recipient',    'Orrin Hatch'],
       ['?contrib', 'amount',       '?dollars'],
    ]);

    for my $binding (@bindings){
       printf "company=%s, contrib=%s, dollars=%s\n", 
           ($binding->{company},$binding->{contrib},$binding->{dollars});
    }
    

    $graph->applyinference( VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::GeocodeRule->new() );

SimpleGraph ^

This module and it's test suite is inspired by the simple triple store implimentation developed in chapters 2 and 3 of "Programming the Semantic Web" by Toby Segaran, Evans Colin, Taylor Jamie, 2009, O'Reilly. Mr. Segaran uses Python and it's standard library to show the workins of a triple store. This module and it's test make the same demonstration using Perl and CPAN modules, which may be thought of as a Perl companion to the book for readers who are interested in Perl. Copies of Mr. Segaran's test data files are included in this distribution for your convenience.

In addition to SimpleGraph, the triple store, the other exercises presented in chapters 2 and 3 are here interpreted as a set of perl test programs, using Test::More and are found in the modules 't/' directory.

Triple Store Modules

    lib/VANAMBURG/SEMPROG/SimpleGraph.pm
    
    lib/VANAMBURG/SEMPROG/CloseToRule.pm
    lib/VANAMBURG/SEMPROG/GeocodeRule.pm
    lib/VANAMBURG/SEMPROG/InferenceRule.pm    
    lib/VANAMBURG/SEMPROG/TouristyRule.pm
    lib/VANAMBURG/SEMPROG/WestCoastRule.pm

Module Usage Shown in Tests

    t/semprog_ch02_03_places.t
    t/semprog_ch02_04_celebs.t
    t/semprog_ch02_05_business.t
    t/semprog_ch02_moviegraph.t
    t/semprog_ch03_01_queries.t
    t/semprog_ch03_02_inference.t
    t/semprog_ch03_03_chain_of_rules.t
    t/semprog_ch03_04_shortest_path.t
    t/semprog_ch03_05_join_graph.t
    qt/semprog_ch03_chain_of_rules.t

Find out more about, or get the book at http://semprog.com, the Semantic Programming web site.

INSTALLATION NOTES ^

This module can be installed via cpan. This method resolves dependency issues and is convenient. In brief, it looks something like this in a terminal on linux:

  $sudo cpan
  cpan>install VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph
  ...
  cpan>quit
  $

All dependencies, as well as the modules are now installed. Leave out 'sudo' if using Strawberry perl on Windows.

You can then download the source package and read and run the test programs.

  $tar xzvf VANAMBURG-SEMPROG-SimpleGraph-0.001.tar.gz
  $cd VANAMBURG-SEMPROG-SimpleGraph-0.001/  
  $ perl Makefile.PL
  ...
  $make
  ...

Run 'dmake' instead of 'make' if using Strawberry Perl on Windows.

To run all the test programs:

  $make test

  -- Note that some tests require internet access for geo code data.

To run one test:

  $prove -Tvl lib - t/semprog_ch03_05_join_graph.t 

MooseX::Declare Experiment ^

Version 0.007 was an experiment in using MooseX::Declare. The code remaind the same as version 0.006, except that classes were defined by the 'class' keyword instead of 'package' and methods are defined using 'method' keyword and well defined parameter lists in place of 'sub' and '@_'. 'class' and 'method' are supplied by MooseX::Declare.

Types of Changes to Source Files

The types of changes to the source looks like this.

        1) CLASS DECLARATIONS WERE CHANGED

        OLD PACKAGE STATEMENTS REMOVED:
        <<package VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph;
        <<use Moose;

        REPLACED WITH MUCH CLEANER DECLARATIONS:
        >>use MooseX::Declare;
        >>class VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph{

        2) METHOD DECLARATIONS WERE CHANGED

        OLD SUB AND @ARG REMOVED:
        <<sub _addToIndex{
        <<    my ($self, $index, $a, $b, $c) = @ARG;
         
        REPLACED WITH METHOD AND DEFINED OPTIONAL PARAMS:
        >>method add($sub?, $pred?, $obj?){

Performance Changes

Version 0.007, using MooseX::Declare took ten times as long as using Moose alone.Subsequent to this test, version 0.008 was created by rolling back to the Version 0.006 sources.

Devel::NYTProf For Version 0.006 (Moose only)

        Performance Profile Index
        For t/semprog_ch03_01_queries.t
          Run on Sun Jan 10 01:14:07 2010
        Reported on Sun Jan 10 01:16:44 2010

        Profile of t/semprog_ch03_01_queries.t for 64.0s, executing 10616075 statements and 3106325 subroutine calls in 119 source files and 194 string evals.
        Top 15 Subroutines — ordered by exclusive time 
        Calls   P       F       Exclusive
        Time    Inclusive
        Time    Subroutine
        374201  2       2       6.10s   8.74s   Set::Scalar::Base::::_insert_elements Set::Scalar::Base::_insert_elements
        187100  1       1       3.90s   15.2s   Set::Scalar::::_insert_hook Set::Scalar::_insert_hook
        451618  2       2       3.18s   3.18s   Set::Scalar::Base::::_invalidate_cached Set::Scalar::Base::_invalidate_cached
        264518  4       3       2.61s   3.88s   Set::Scalar::Base::::_make_elements Set::Scalar::Base::_make_elements
        109683  3       1       2.45s   26.6s   VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph::::_addToIndexVANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph::_addToIndex
        109683  2       1       1.86s   14.0s   Set::Scalar::Real::::insert Set::Scalar::Real::insert
        187100  2       2       1.85s   17.1s   Set::Scalar::Base::::_insert Set::Scalar::Base::_insert
        187101  2       2       1.72s   6.10s   Set::Scalar::Virtual::::_extend Set::Scalar::Virtual::_extend
        77417   1       1       1.63s   9.01s   Set::Scalar::::_new_hook Set::Scalar::_new_hook
        36561   1       1       1.39s   28.6s   VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph::::addVANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph::add
        77417   1       1       1.36s   1.90s   Set::Scalar::Real::::_delete Set::Scalar::Real::_delete
        77417   1       1       1.32s   6.82s   Set::Scalar::Real::::clear Set::Scalar::Real::clear
        219366  1       1       1.26s   1.26s   Set::Scalar::Base::::_strval Set::Scalar::Base::_strval
        77417   1       1       1.11s   4.73s   Set::Scalar::Real::::delete Set::Scalar::Real::delete
        77419   3       2       1.11s   10.1s   Set::Scalar::Base::::new Set::Scalar::Base::new

Devel::NYTProf For Version 0.007 (MooseX::Declare)

        Performance Profile Index
        For t/semprog_ch03_01_queries.t
          Run on Sun Jan 10 01:28:09 2010
        Reported on Sun Jan 10 01:38:25 2010

        Profile of t/semprog_ch03_01_queries.t for 489s, executing 74793743 statements and 24836936 subroutine calls in 371 source files and 407 string evals.
        Top 15 Subroutines — ordered by exclusive time 
        Calls   P       F       Exclusive
        Time    Inclusive
        Time    Subroutine
        1426306 23      11      38.3s   250s    MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::::AUTOLOAD MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::AUTOLOAD
        438753  1       1       36.5s   186s    MooseX::Types::Structured::::__ANON__[MooseX/Types/Structured.pm:745] MooseX::Types::Structured::__ANON__[MooseX/Types/Structured.pm:745]
        2304288 3       1       26.0s   30.6s   MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::::__type_constraint MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::__type_constraint
        1280098 6       5       21.2s   163s    Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint::::check Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint::check
        548425  2       2       15.1s   18.8s   Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint::::Defined Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint::Defined
        146251  1       1       12.2s   16.8s   MooseX::Method::Signatures::Meta::Method::::__ANON__[MooseX/Method/Signatures/Meta/Method.pm:430] MooseX::Method::Signatures::Meta::Method::__ANON__[MooseX/Method/Signatures/Meta/Method.pm:430]
        585005  2       1       11.2s   303s    MooseX::Meta::TypeConstraint::Structured::::__ANON__[MooseX/Meta/TypeConstraint/Structured.pm:115] MooseX::Meta::TypeConstraint::Structured::__ANON__[MooseX/Meta/TypeConstraint/Structured.pm:115]
        1426306 1       2       9.06s   9.06s   MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::::CORE:match MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::CORE:match (opcode)
        438881  9       7       8.41s   17.2s   MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::::isa MooseX::Types::TypeDecorator::isa
        3924871 56      34      7.80s   7.80s   Scalar::Util::::blessed Scalar::Util::blessed (xsub)
        1426685 7       6       7.22s   7.22s   Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint::::_compiled_type_constraint Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint::_compiled_type_constraint
        374201  2       2       6.31s   9.05s   Set::Scalar::Base::::_insert_elements Set::Scalar::Base::_insert_elements
        219366  4       2       5.35s   227s    VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph::::_addToIndex VANAMBURG::SEMPROG::SimpleGraph::_addToIndex
        146251  1       1       4.87s   256s    MooseX::Meta::TypeConstraint::ForceCoercion::::validateMooseX::Meta::TypeConstraint::ForceCoercion::validate
        146251  1       1       4.87s   263s    MooseX::Method::Signatures::Meta::Method::::validate MooseX::Method::Signatures::Meta::Method::validate

METHODS ^

add

Adds a triple to the graph.

    $g->add("San Francisco", "inside", "California");
    $g->add("Ann Arbor", "inside", "Michigan");

remove

Remove a triple pattern from the graph.

    # remove all triples with predicate "inside"
    $g->remove(undef, "inside", undef);

triples

    # retrieve all triples with predicate "inside"
    my @triples = $g->triples(undef, "inside", undef);

    # @triples looks like this:
    #  ( 
    #    ["San Francisco", "inside", "California"],
    #    ["Ann Arbor", "inside", "Michigan"],
    #  )

value

Retrieve a single value from a triple.

    my $x = $g->value(undef, 'inside', 'Michigan');
    # $x contains "Ann Arbor" given examples added.

query

Returns array of hashrefs where keys are binding variables for triples.

    my @bindings = $g->query([
        ['?company','headquarters','New_York_New_York'],
        ['?company','industry','Investment Banking'],
        ['?cont','contributor','?company'],
        ['?cont', 'recipient', 'Orrin Hatch'],
        ['?cont', 'amount', '?dollars'],
    ]);

applyinference

Given an InferenceRule, generates additional triples in the triple store.

load

Loads a csv file in utf8 encoding.

    $g->load("some/file.csv");

load_json

Loads a json file into a graph. The json file should be formated as follows:

{ "triples" : [ { "s": "your subject 1", "p": "your predicate 1", "o": "your object 1" }, { "s": "your subject 2", "p": "your predicate 2", "o": "your object 2" } ] }

save

Saves a csv file in utf8 encoding.

    $g->load("some/file.csv");

_addToIndex

See source for details.

_removeFromIndex

        Removes a triple from an index and clears up empty indermediate structures.
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