Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils - Utility routines for astronomical calculations
use Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils qw{:all}; my $now = time (); print "The current Julian day is ", julianday ($now);
This module was written to provide a home for all the constants and utility subroutines used by Astro::Coord::ECI and its descendents. What ended up here was anything that was essentially a subroutine, not a method.
Because figuring out how to convert to and from Perl time bids fair to become complicated, this module is also responsible for figuring out how that is done, and exporting whatever is needful to export. See :time
below for the gory details.
This package exports nothing by default. But all the constants, variables, and subroutines documented below are exportable, and the following export tags may be used:
This imports everything exportable into your name space.
This imports the parameter validation routines __classisa
and __instance
.
This imports the time routines into your name space. If Time::y2038 is available, it will be loaded, and both this tag and :all
will import gmtime
, localtime
, timegm
, and timelocal
into your name space. Otherwise, Time::Local|Time::Local
will be loaded, and both this tag and :all
will import timegm
and timelocal
into your name space.
This imports the vector arithmetic routines. It includes anything whose name begins with 'vector_'
.
Under Perl 5.6 you may find that, if you use any of the above tags, you need to specify them first in your import list.
AU = number of kilometers in an astronomical unit JD_OF_EPOCH = the Julian Day of Perl epoch 0 LIGHTYEAR = number of kilometers in a light year PARSEC = number of kilometers in a parsec PERL2000 = January 1 2000, 12 noon universal, in Perl time PI = the circle ratio, computed as atan2 (0, -1) PIOVER2 = half the circle ratio SECSPERDAY = the number of seconds in a day SECS_PER_SIDERIAL_DAY = seconds in a siderial day SPEED_OF_LIGHT = speed of light in kilometers per second TWOPI = twice the circle ratio
This variable represents the POSIX::strftime format used to convert times to strings. The default value is '%a %b %d %Y %H:%M:%S' to be consistent with the behavior of gmtime (or, to be precise, the behavior of ctime as documented on my system).
This variable represents the Julian Day of the switch from Julian to Gregorian calendars. This is used by date2jd(), jd2date(), and the routines which depend on them, for deciding whether the date is to be interpreted as in the Julian or Gregorian calendar. Its initial setting is 2299160.5, which represents midnight October 15 1582 in the Gregorian calendar, which is the date that calendar was first adopted. This is slightly different than the value of 2299161 (noon of the same day) used by Jean Meeus.
If you are interested in historical calculations, you may wish to reset this appropriately. If you use date2jd to calculate the new value, be aware of the effect the current setting of $JD_GREGORIAN has on the interpretation of the date you give.
This subroutine calculates the arc in radians whose cosine is the given value.
This subroutine computes the total magnitude of a list of individual magnitudes. The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", Second Edition, Chapter 56, Page 393.
This subroutine calculates the arc in radians whose sine is the given value.
This subroutine calculates the typical atmospheric extinction in magnitudes at the given elevation above the horizon in radians and the given height above sea level in kilometers.
The algorithm comes from Daniel W. E. Green's article "Magnitude Corrections for Atmospheric Extinction", which was published in the July 1992 issue of "International Comet Quarterly", and is available online at http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/icq/ICQExtinct.html. The text of this article makes it clear that the actual value of the atmospheric extinction can vary greatly from the typical values given even in the absence of cloud cover.
This subroutine converts the given date to the corresponding Julian day. The inputs are as for Time::Local::timegm; $mon is in the range 0 - 11, and $yr is from 1900, with earlier years being negative. The year 1 BC is represented as -1900.
If less than 6 arguments are provided, zeroes will be prepended to the argument list as needed.
The date is presumed to be in the Gregorian calendar. If the resultant Julian Day is before $JD_GREGORIAN, the date is reinterpreted as being from the Julian calendar.
The only validation is that the month be between 0 and 11 inclusive, and that the year be not less than -6612 (4713 BC). Fractional days are accepted.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", second edition, chapter 7 ("Julian Day"), pages 60ff, but the month is zero-based, not 1-based, and years are 1900-based.
This is a convenience routine that converts the given date to seconds since the epoch, going through date2jd() to do so. The arguments are the same as those of date2jd().
If less than 6 arguments are provided, zeroes will be prepended to the argument list as needed.
The functionality is the same as Time::Local::timegm, but this function lacks timegm's limited date range under Perls before 5.12.0. If you have Perl 5.12.0 or better, the core Time::Local timegm()
will probably do what you want. If you have an earlier Perl, Time::y2038 timegm()
may do what you want.
This subroutine decodes a time in the format Space Track uses in their JSON code. This is ISO-8601-ish, but with a possible fractional part and no zone.
This subroutine converts degrees to radians. If the argument is undef
, undef
will be returned.
This subroutine calculates the square of the distance between the two sets of Cartesian coordinates. We do not take the square root here because of cases (e.g. the law of cosines) where we would just have to square the result again.
Notice that the subroutine does not assume three-dimensional coordinates. If @coord1 and @coord2 have six entries, you will get a six-dimensional distance.
This method returns the difference between dynamical and universal time at the given universal time. That is,
$dynamical = $time + dynamical_delta ($time)
if $time is universal time.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 10, page 78.
This subroutine represents a safe way to call the 'represents' method on $thingy. You get back true if and only if $thingy->can('represents') does not throw an exception and returns true, and $thingy->represents($class) returns true. Otherwise it returns false. Any exception is trapped and dismissed.
This subroutine is called 'embodies' because it was too confusing to call it 'represents', both for the author and for the Perl interpreter.
This convenience subroutine converts the given time in seconds from the system epoch to the corresponding date and time. It is implemented in terms of jd2date (), with the year and month returned from that subroutine. The day is a whole number, with the fractional part converted to hours, minutes, and seconds. The $wday is the day of the week, with Sunday being 0. The $yday is the day of the year, with January 1 being 0. The trailing 0 is the summer time (or daylight saving time) indicator which is always 0 to be consistent with gmtime.
If called in scalar context, it returns the date formatted by POSIX::strftime, using the format string in $DATETIMEFORMAT.
The functionality is the same as the core gmtime()
, but this function lacks gmtime's limited date range under Perls before 5.12.0. If you have Perl 5.12.0 or better, the core gmtime()
will probably do what you want. If you have an earlier Perl, Time::y2038 gmtime()
may do what you want.
The input must convert to a non-negative Julian date. The exact lower limit depends on the system, but is computed by -(JD_OF_EPOCH * 86400). For Unix systems with an epoch of January 1 1970, this is -210866760000.
Additional algorithms for day of week and day of year come from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7 (Julian Day), page 65.
This method returns the equation of time at the given dynamical time.
The algorithm is from W. S. Smart's "Text-Book on Spherical Astronomy", as reported in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 28, page 185.
This function finds the first time between $start and $end for which test ($time) is true. The resolution is $limit, which defaults to 1 if not specified. If the times are reversed (i.e. the start time is after the end time) the time returned is the last time test ($time) is true.
The test()
function is called with the Perl time as its only argument. It is assumed to be false for the first part of the interval, and true for the rest. If this assumption is violated, the result of this subroutine should be considered meaningless.
The calculation is done by, essentially, a binary search; the interval is repeatedly split, the function is evaluated at the midpoint, and a new interval selected based on whether the result is true or false.
Actually, nothing in this function says the independent variable has to be time.
This function folds the case of its input, kinda sorta. It maps to CORE::fc
if that is available, otherwise it maps to CORE::lc
.
This function takes as input a Perl time, and returns that time in a format consistent with the Space Track JSON data. This is ISO-8601-ish, in Universal time, but without the zone indicated.
This function converts a ratio of light intensities to a difference in stellar magnitudes. The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", Second Edition, Chapter 56, Page 395.
Note that, because of the way magnitudes work (a more negative number represents a brighter star) you get back a positive result for an intensity ratio less than 1, and a negative result for an intensity ratio greater than 1.
This subroutine converts the given Julian day to the corresponding date. The returns are year - 1900, month (0 to 11), day (which may have a fractional part), a Gregorian calendar indicator which is true if the date is in the Gregorian calendar and false if it is in the Julian calendar, and a leap (or bissextile) year indicator which is true if the year is a leap year and false otherwise. The year 1 BC is returned as -1900 (i.e. as year 0), and so on. The date will probably have a fractional part (e.g. 2006 1 1.5 for noon January first 2006).
If the $jd is before $JD_GREGORIAN, the date will be in the Julian calendar; otherwise it will be in the Gregorian calendar.
The input may not be less than 0.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", second edition, chapter 7 ("Julian Day"), pages 63ff, but the month is zero-based, not 1-based, and the year is 1900-based.
This convenience subroutine converts the given Julian day to the corresponding date and time. All this really does is converts its argument to seconds since the system epoch, and pass off to epoch2datetime().
The input may not be less than 0.
Several of the algorithms in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms" are expressed in terms of the number of Julian centuries from epoch J2000.0 (e.g equations 12.1, 22.1). This subroutine encapsulates that calculation.
This subroutine converts a Perl date to the number of Julian days (and fractions thereof) since Julian 2000.0. This quantity is used in a number of the algorithms in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms".
The computation makes use of information from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7, page 62.
This subroutine converts a Perl date to a Julian day number.
The computation makes use of information from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7, page 62.
This subroutine solves Kepler's equation for the given mean anomaly $M
in radians, eccentricity $e
and precision $prec
in radians. It returns the eccentric anomaly in radians, to the given precision.
The $prec
argument is optional, and defaults to the radian equivalent of 0.001 degrees.
The algorithm is Meeus' equation 30.7, with John M. Steele's amendment for large values for the correction, given on page 205 of Meeus' book,
This subroutine is not used in the computation of satellite orbits, since the models have their own implementation.
This convenience method loads the named module (using 'require'), throwing an exception if the load fails. If the load succeeds, it returns the result of the 'require' built-in, which is required to be true for a successful load. Results are cached, and subsequent attempts to load the same module simply give the cached results.
This subroutine returns true if the input looks like a number. It uses Scalar::Util::looks_like_number if that is available, otherwise it uses its own code, which is lifted verbatim from Scalar::Util 1.19, which in turn leans heavily on perlfaq4.
This subroutine returns the maximum of its arguments. If List::Util can be loaded and 'max' imported, that's what you get. Otherwise you get a pure Perl implementation.
This subroutine returns the minimum of its arguments. If List::Util can be loaded and 'min' imported, that's what you get. Otherwise you get a pure Perl implementation.
This subroutine reduces the given angle in radians to the range 0 <= $theta < TWOPI.
This subroutine calculates the nutation in longitude (delta psi) for the given dynamical time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff. Meeus states that it is good to 0.5 seconds of arc.
This subroutine calculates the nutation in obliquity (delta epsilon) for the given dynamical time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff. Meeus states that it is good to 0.1 seconds of arc.
This subroutine calculates the obliquity of the ecliptic in radians at the given dynamical time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff. The conversion from universal to dynamical time comes from chapter 10, equation 10.2 on page 78.
This subroutine calculates the ecliptic longitude of the ascending node of the Moon's mean orbit at the given dynamical time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff.
This subroutine converts the given angle in radians to its equivalent in degrees. If the argument is undef
, undef
will be returned.
This subroutine computes the tangent of the given angle in radians.
This subroutine returns the Greenwich hour angle of the mean equinox at 0 hours universal on the day whose time is given (i.e. the argument is a standard Perl time).
This subroutine returns the Greenwich hour angle of the mean equinox at the given time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, equation 12.4, page 88.
This subroutine computes and returns the vector cross product of $b and $c. Vectors are represented by array references. The cross product is only defined if both arrays have 3 elements.
This subroutine computes and returns the vector dot product of $b and $c. Vectors are represented by array references. The dot product is only defined if both arrays have the same number of elements.
This subroutine computes and returns the magnitude of vector $b. The vector is represented by an array reference.
This subroutine computes and returns a unit vector pointing in the same direction as $b. The vectors are represented by array references.
The author wishes to acknowledge Jean Meeus, whose book "Astronomical Algorithms" (second edition) published by Willmann-Bell Inc (http://www.willbell.com/) provided several of the algorithms implemented herein.
Bugs can be reported to the author by mail, or through http://rt.cpan.org/.
Thomas R. Wyant, III (wyant at cpan dot org)
Copyright (C) 2005-2014 by Thomas R. Wyant, III
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl 5.10.0. For more details, see the full text of the licenses in the directory LICENSES.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.