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Module Version: 1.104   Source   Latest Release: Cairo-1.105

NAME ^

Cairo - Perl interface to the cairo 2d vector graphics library

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Cairo;

  my $surface = Cairo::ImageSurface->create ('argb32', 100, 100);
  my $cr = Cairo::Context->create ($surface);

  $cr->rectangle (10, 10, 40, 40);
  $cr->set_source_rgb (0, 0, 0);
  $cr->fill;

  $cr->rectangle (50, 50, 40, 40);
  $cr->set_source_rgb (1, 1, 1);
  $cr->fill;

  $cr->show_page;

  $surface->write_to_png ('output.png');

ABSTRACT ^

Cairo provides Perl bindings for the vector graphics library cairo. It supports multiple output targets, including PNG, PDF and SVG. Cairo produces identical output on all those targets.

API DOCUMENTATION ^

This is a listing of the API Cairo provides. For more verbose information, refer to the cairo manual at http://cairographics.org/manual/.

Drawing

Cairo::Context -- The cairo drawing context

Cairo::Context is the main object used when drawing with Cairo. To draw with Cairo, you create a Cairo::Context, set the target surface, and drawing options for the Cairo::Context, create shapes with methods like $cr->move_to and $cr->line_to, and then draw shapes with $cr->stroke or $cr->fill.

Cairo::Context's can be pushed to a stack via $cr->save. They may then safely be changed, without loosing the current state. Use $cr->restore to restore to the saved state.

$cr = Cairo::Context->create ($surface)
$surface: Cairo::Surface
$cr->save
$cr->restore
$status = $cr->status
$surface = $cr->get_target
$cr->push_group [1.2]
$cr->push_group_with_content ($content) [1.2]
$content: Cairo::Content
$pattern = $cr->pop_group [1.2]
$cr->pop_group_to_source [1.2]
$surface = $cr->get_group_target [1.2]
$cr->set_source_rgb ($red, $green, $blue)
$red: double
$green: double
$blue: double
$cr->set_source_rgba ($red, $green, $blue, $alpha)
$red: double
$green: double
$blue: double
$alpha: double
$cr->set_source ($source)
$source: Cairo::Pattern
$cr->set_source_surface ($surface, $x, $y)
$surface: Cairo::Surface
$x: double
$y: double
$source = $cr->get_source
$cr->set_antialias ($antialias)
$antialias: Cairo::Antialias
$antialias = $cr->get_antialias
$cr->set_dash ($offset, ...)
$offset: double
...: list of doubles
$cr->set_fill_rule ($fill_rule)
$fill_rule: Cairo::FillRule
$fill_rule = $cr->get_fill_rule
$cr->set_line_cap ($line_cap)
$line_cap: Cairo::LineCap
$line_cap = $cr->get_line_cap
$cr->set_line_join ($line_join)
$line_join: Cairo::LineJoin
$line_join = $cr->get_line_join
$cr->set_line_width ($width)
$width: double
$width = $cr->get_line_width
$cr->set_miter_limit ($limit)
$limit: double
($offset, @dashes) = $cr->get_dash [1.4]
$limit = $cr->get_miter_limit
$cr->set_operator ($op)
$op: Cairo::Operator
$op = $cr->get_operator
$cr->set_tolerance ($tolerance)
$tolerance: double
$tolerance = $cr->get_tolerance
$cr->clip
$cr->clip_preserve
($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2) = $cr->clip_extents [1.4]
$bool = $cr->in_clip ($x, $y) [1.10]
$x: double
$y: double
@rectangles = $cr->copy_clip_rectangle_list [1.4]
$cr->reset_clip
$cr->fill
$cr->fill_preserve
($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2) = $cr->fill_extents
$bool = $cr->in_fill ($x, $y)
$x: double
$y: double
$cr->mask ($pattern)
$pattern: Cairo::Pattern
$cr->mask_surface ($surface, $surface_x, $surface_y)
$surface: Cairo::Surface
$surface_x: double
$surface_y: double
$cr->paint
$cr->paint_with_alpha ($alpha)
$alpha: double
$cr->stroke
$cr->stroke_preserve
($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2) = $cr->stroke_extents
$bool = $cr->in_stroke ($x, $y)
$x: double
$y: double
$cr->copy_page
$cr->show_page

Paths -- Creating paths and manipulating path data

  $path = [
    { type => "move-to", points => [[1, 2]] },
    { type => "line-to", points => [[3, 4]] },
    { type => "curve-to", points => [[5, 6], [7, 8], [9, 10]] },
    ...
    { type => "close-path", points => [] },
  ];

Cairo::Path is a data structure for holding a path. This data structure serves as the return value for $cr->copy_path and $cr->copy_path_flat as well the input value for $cr->append_path.

Cairo::Path is represented as an array reference that contains path elements, represented by hash references with two keys: type and points. The value for type can be either of the following:

move-to
line-to
curve-to
close-path

The value for points is an array reference which contains zero or more points. Points are represented as array references that contain two doubles: x and y. The necessary number of points depends on the type of the path element:

move-to: 1 point
line_to: 1 point
curve-to: 3 points
close-path: 0 points

The semantics and ordering of the coordinate values are consistent with $cr->move_to, $cr->line_to, $cr->curve_to, and $cr->close_path.

Note that the paths returned by Cairo are implemented as tied array references which do not support adding, removing or shuffling of path segments. For these operations, you need to make a shallow copy first:

  my @path_clone = @{$path};
  # now you can alter @path_clone which ever way you want

The points of a single path element can be changed directly, however, without the need for a shallow copy:

  $path->[$i]{points} = [[3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8]];
$path = $cr->copy_path
$path = $cr->copy_path_flat
$cr->append_path ($path)
$path: Cairo::Path
$bool = $cr->has_current_point [1.6]
($x, $y) = $cr->get_current_point
$cr->new_path
$cr->new_sub_path [1.2]
$cr->close_path
($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2) = $cr->path_extents [1.6]
$cr->arc ($xc, $yc, $radius, $angle1, $angle2)
$xc: double
$yc: double
$radius: double
$angle1: double
$angle2: double
$cr->arc_negative ($xc, $yc, $radius, $angle1, $angle2)
$xc: double
$yc: double
$radius: double
$angle1: double
$angle2: double
$cr->curve_to ($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2, $x3, $y3)
$x1: double
$y1: double
$x2: double
$y2: double
$x3: double
$y3: double
$cr->line_to ($x, $y)
$x: double
$y: double
$cr->move_to ($x, $y)
$x: double
$y: double
$cr->rectangle ($x, $y, $width, $height)
$x: double
$y: double
$width: double
$height: double
$cr->glyph_path (...)
...: list of Cairo::Glyph's
$cr->text_path ($utf8)
$utf8: string in utf8 encoding
$cr->rel_curve_to ($dx1, $dy1, $dx2, $dy2, $dx3, $dy3)
$dx1: double
$dy1: double
$dx2: double
$dy2: double
$dx3: double
$dy3: double
$cr->rel_line_to ($dx, $dy)
$dx: double
$dy: double
$cr->rel_move_to ($dx, $dy)
$dx: double
$dy: double

Patterns -- Gradients and filtered sources

$status = $pattern->status
$type = $pattern->get_type [1.2]
$pattern->set_extend ($extend)
$extend: Cairo::Extend
$extend = $pattern->get_extend
$pattern->set_filter ($filter)
$filter: Cairo::Filter
$filter = $pattern->get_filter
$pattern->set_matrix ($matrix)
$matrix: Cairo::Matrix
$matrix = $pattern->get_matrix
$pattern = Cairo::SolidPattern->create_rgb ($red, $green, $blue)
$red: double
$green: double
$blue: double
$pattern = Cairo::SolidPattern->create_rgba ($red, $green, $blue, $alpha)
$red: double
$green: double
$blue: double
$alpha: double
($r, $g, $b, $a) = $pattern->get_rgba [1.4]
$pattern = Cairo::SurfacePattern->create ($surface)
$surface: Cairo::Surface
$surface = $pattern->get_surface [1.4]
$pattern = Cairo::LinearGradient->create ($x0, $y0, $x1, $y1)
$x0: double
$y0: double
$x1: double
$y1: double
($x0, $y0, $x1, $y1) = $pattern->get_points [1.4]
$pattern = Cairo::RadialGradient->create ($cx0, $cy0, $radius0, $cx1, $cy1, $radius1)
$cx0: double
$cy0: double
$radius0: double
$cx1: double
$cy1: double
$radius1: double
($x0, $y0, $r0, $x1, $y1, $r1) = $pattern->get_circles [1.4]
$pattern->add_color_stop_rgb ($offset, $red, $green, $blue)
$offset: double
$red: double
$green: double
$blue: double
$pattern->add_color_stop_rgba ($offset, $red, $green, $blue, $alpha)
$offset: double
$red: double
$green: double
$blue: double
$alpha: double
@stops = $pattern->get_color_stops [1.4]

A color stop is represented as an array reference with five elements: offset, red, green, blue, and alpha.

Regions -- Representing a pixel-aligned area

$region = Cairo::Region->create (...) [1.10]
...: zero or more Cairo::RectangleInt
$status = $region->status [1.10]
$num = $region->num_rectangles [1.10]
$rect = $region->get_rectangle ($i) [1.10]
$i: integer
$bool = $region->is_empty [1.10]
$bool = $region->contains_point ($x, $y) [1.10]
$x: integer
$y: integer
$bool = $region_one->equal ($region_two) [1.10]
$region_two: Cairo::Region
$region->translate ($dx, $dy) [1.10]
$dx: integer
$dy: integer
$status = $dst->intersect ($other) [1.10]
$status = $dst->intersect_rectangle ($rect) [1.10]
$status = $dst->subtract ($other) [1.10]
$status = $dst->subtract_rectangle ($rect) [1.10]
$status = $dst->union ($other) [1.10]
$status = $dst->union_rectangle ($rect) [1.10]
$status = $dst->xor ($other) [1.10]
$status = $dst->xor_rectangle ($rect) [1.10]
$other: Cairo::Region
$rect: Cairo::RectangleInt

Transformations -- Manipulating the current transformation matrix

$cr->translate ($tx, $ty)
$tx: double
$ty: double
$cr->scale ($sx, $sy)
$sx: double
$sy: double
$cr->rotate ($angle)
$angle: double
$cr->transform ($matrix)
$matrix: Cairo::Matrix
$cr->set_matrix ($matrix)
$matrix: Cairo::Matrix
$matrix = $cr->get_matrix
$cr->identity_matrix
($x, $y) = $cr->user_to_device ($x, $y)
$x: double
$y: double
($dx, $dy) = $cr->user_to_device_distance ($dx, $dy)
$dx: double
$dy: double
($x, $y) = $cr->device_to_user ($x, $y)
$x: double
$y: double
($dx, $dy) = $cr->device_to_user_distance ($dx, $dy)
$dx: double
$dy: double

Text -- Rendering text and sets of glyphs

Glyphs are represented as anonymous hash references with three keys: index, x and y. Example:

  my @glyphs = ({ index => 1, x => 2, y => 3 },
                { index => 2, x => 3, y => 4 },
                { index => 3, x => 4, y => 5 });
$cr->select_font_face ($family, $slant, $weight)
$family: string
$slant: Cairo::FontSlant
$weight: Cairo::FontWeight
$cr->set_font_size ($size)
$size: double
$cr->set_font_matrix ($matrix)
$matrix: Cairo::Matrix
$matrix = $cr->get_font_matrix
$cr->set_font_options ($options)
$options: Cairo::FontOptions
$options = $cr->get_font_options
$cr->set_scaled_font ($scaled_font) [1.2]
$scaled_font: Cairo::ScaledFont
$scaled_font = $cr->get_scaled_font [1.4]
$cr->show_text ($utf8)
$utf8: string
$cr->show_glyphs (...)
...: list of glyphs
$cr->show_text_glyphs ($utf8, $glyphs, $clusters, $cluster_flags) [1.8]
$utf8: string
$glyphs: array ref of glyphs
$clusters: array ref of clusters
$cluster_flags: Cairo::TextClusterFlags
$face = $cr->get_font_face
$extents = $cr->font_extents
$cr->set_font_face ($font_face)
$font_face: Cairo::FontFace
$cr->set_scaled_font ($scaled_font)
$scaled_font: Cairo::ScaledFont
$extents = $cr->text_extents ($utf8)
$utf8: string
$extents = $cr->glyph_extents (...)
...: list of glyphs
$face = Cairo::ToyFontFace->create ($family, $slant, $weight) [1.8]
$family: string
$slant: Cairo::FontSlant
$weight: Cairo::FontWeight
$family = $face->get_family [1.8]
$slang = $face->get_slant [1.8]
$weight = $face->get_weight [1.8]

Fonts

Cairo::FontFace -- Base class for fonts

$status = $font_face->status
$type = $font_face->get_type [1.2]

Scaled Fonts -- Caching metrics for a particular font size

$scaled_font = Cairo::ScaledFont->create ($font_face, $font_matrix, $ctm, $options)
$font_face: Cairo::FontFace
$font_matrix: Cairo::Matrix
$ctm: Cairo::Matrix
$options: Cairo::FontOptions
$status = $scaled_font->status
$extents = $scaled_font->extents
$extents = $scaled_font->text_extents ($utf8) [1.2]
$utf8: string
$extents = $scaled_font->glyph_extents (...)
...: list of glyphs
($status, $glyphs, $clusters, $cluster_flags) = $scaled_font->text_to_glyphs ($x, $y, $utf8) [1.8]
$x: double
$y: double
$utf8: string
$font_face = $scaled_font->get_font_face [1.2]
$options = $scaled_font->get_font_options [1.2]
$font_matrix = $scaled_font->get_font_matrix [1.2]
$ctm = $scaled_font->get_ctm [1.2]
$scale_matrix = $scaled_font->get_scale_matrix [1.8]
$type = $scaled_font->get_type [1.2]

Font Options -- How a font should be rendered

$font_options = Cairo::FontOptions->create
$status = $font_options->status
$font_options->merge ($other)
$other: Cairo::FontOptions
$hash = $font_options->hash
$bools = $font_options->equal ($other)
$other: Cairo::FontOptions
$font_options->set_antialias ($antialias)
$antialias: Cairo::AntiAlias
$antialias = $font_options->get_antialias
$font_options->set_subpixel_order ($subpixel_order)
$subpixel_order: Cairo::SubpixelOrder
$subpixel_order = $font_options->get_subpixel_order
$font_options->set_hint_style ($hint_style)
$hint_style: Cairo::HintStyle
$hint_style = $font_options->get_hint_style
$font_options->set_hint_metrics ($hint_metrics)
$hint_metrics: Cairo::HintMetrics
$hint_metrics = $font_options->get_hint_metrics

FreeType Fonts -- Font support for FreeType

If your cairo library supports it, the FreeType integration allows you to load font faces from font files. You can query for this capability with Cairo::HAS_FT_FONT. To actually use this, you'll need the Font::FreeType module.

my $face = Cairo::FtFontFace->create ($ft_face, $load_flags=0)
$ft_face: Font::FreeType::Face
$load_flags: integer

This method allows you to create a Cairo::FontFace from a Font::FreeType::Face. To obtain the latter, you can for example load it from a file:

  my $file = '/usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-bitstream-vera/Vera.ttf';
  my $ft_face = Font::FreeType->new->face ($file);
  my $face = Cairo::FtFontFace->create ($ft_face);

Surfaces

Cairo::Surface -- Base class for surfaces

$similar = Cairo::Surface->create_similar ($other, $content, $width, $height)
$other: Cairo::Surface
$content: Cairo::Content
$width: integer
$height: integer

For hysterical reasons, you can also use the following syntax:

  $similar = $other->create_similar ($content, $width, $height)
$new = Cairo::Surface->create_for_rectangle ($target, $x, $y, $width, $height) [1.10]
$target: Cairo::Surface
$x: double
$y: double
$width: double
$height: double
$status = $surface->status
$surface->finish
$surface->flush
$font_options = $surface->get_font_options
$content = $surface->get_content [1.2]
$surface->mark_dirty
$surface->mark_dirty_rectangle ($x, $y, $width, $height)
$x: integer
$y: integer
$width: integer
$height: integer
$surface->set_device_offset ($x_offset, $y_offset)
$x_offset: integer
$y_offset: integer
($x_offset, $y_offset) = $surface->get_device_offset [1.2]
$surface->set_fallback_resolution ($x_pixels_per_inch, $y_pixels_per_inch) [1.2]
$x_pixels_per_inch: double
$y_pixels_per_inch: double
($x_pixels_per_inch, $y_pixels_per_inch) = $surface->get_fallback_resolution [1.8]
$type = $surface->get_type [1.2]
$status = $surface->copy_page [1.6]
$status: Cairo::Status
$status = $surface->show_page [1.6]
$status: Cairo::Status
$boolean = $surface->has_show_text_glyphs [1.8]

Image Surfaces -- Rendering to memory buffers

$surface = Cairo::ImageSurface->create ($format, $width, $height)
$format: Cairo::Format
$width: integer
$height: integer
$surface = Cairo::ImageSurface->create_for_data ($data, $format, $width, $height, $stride)
$data: image data
$format: Cairo::Format
$width: integer
$height: integer
$stride: integer
$data = $surface->get_data [1.2]
$format = $surface->get_format [1.2]
$width = $surface->get_width
$height = $surface->get_height
$stride = $surface->get_stride [1.2]
$stride = Cairo::Format::stride_for_width ($format, $width) [1.6]
$format: Cairo::Format
$width: integer

PDF Surfaces -- Rendering PDF documents

$surface = Cairo::PdfSurface->create ($filename, $width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$filename: string
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface = Cairo::PdfSurface->create_for_stream ($callback, $callback_data, $width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$callback: Cairo::WriteFunc
$callback_data: scalar
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface->set_size ($width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface->restrict_to_version ($version) [1.10]
$version: Cairo::PdfVersion
@versions = Cairo::PdfSurface::get_versions [1.10]
$string = Cairo::PdfSurface::version_to_string ($version) [1.10]
$version: Cairo::PdfVersion

PNG Support -- Reading and writing PNG images

$surface = Cairo::ImageSurface->create_from_png ($filename)
$filename: string
Cairo::ReadFunc: $data = sub { my ($callback_data, $length) = @_; }
$data: binary image data, of length $length
$callback_data: scalar, user data
$length: integer, bytes to read
$surface = Cairo::ImageSurface->create_from_png_stream ($callback, $callback_data)
$callback: Cairo::ReadFunc
$callback_data: scalar
$status = $surface->write_to_png ($filename)
$filename: string
Cairo::WriteFunc: sub { my ($callback_data, $data) = @_; }
$callback_data: scalar, user data
$data: binary image data, to be written
$status = $surface->write_to_png_stream ($callback, $callback_data)
$callback: Cairo::WriteFunc
$callback_data: scalar

PostScript Surfaces -- Rendering PostScript documents

$surface = Cairo::PsSurface->create ($filename, $width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$filename: string
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface = Cairo::PsSurface->create_for_stream ($callback, $callback_data, $width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$callback: Cairo::WriteFunc
$callback_data: scalar
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface->set_size ($width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface->dsc_begin_setup [1.2]
$surface->dsc_begin_page_setup [1.2]
$surface->dsc_comment ($comment) [1.2]
$comment: string
$surface->restrict_to_level ($level) [1.6]
$level: Cairo::PsLevel
@levels = Cairo::PsSurface::get_levels [1.6]
$string = Cairo::PsSurface::level_to_string ($level) [1.6]
$level: Cairo::PsLevel
$surface->set_eps ($eps) [1.6]
$eps: boolean
$eps = $surface->get_eps [1.6]

Recording Surfaces -- Records all drawing operations

$surface = Cairo::RecordingSurface->create ($content, $extents) [1.10]
$content: Cairo::Content
$extents: Cairo::Rectangle
($x0, $y0, $width, $height) = $surface->ink_extents [1.10]

SVG Surfaces -- Rendering SVG documents

$surface = Cairo::SvgSurface->create ($filename, $width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$filename: string
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface = Cairo::SvgSurface->create_for_stream ($callback, $callback_data, $width_in_points, $height_in_points) [1.2]
$callback: Cairo::WriteFunc
$callback_data: scalar
$width_in_points: double
$height_in_points: double
$surface->restrict_to_version ($version) [1.2]
$version: Cairo::SvgVersion
@versions = Cairo::SvgSurface::get_versions [1.2]
$string = Cairo::SvgSurface::version_to_string ($version) [1.2]
$version: Cairo::SvgVersion

Utilities

Version Information -- Run-time and compile-time version checks.

$version_code = Cairo->lib_version
$version_string = Cairo->lib_version_string

These two functions return the version of libcairo that the program is currently running against.

$version_code = Cairo->LIB_VERSION

Returns the version of libcairo that Cairo was compiled against.

$version_code = Cairo->LIB_VERSION_ENCODE ($major, $minor, $micro)
$major: integer
$minor: integer
$micro: integer

Encodes the version $major.$minor.$micro as an integer suitable for comparison against Cairo->lib_version and Cairo->LIB_VERSION.

SEE ALSO ^

http://cairographics.org/documentation

Lists many available resources including tutorials and examples

http://cairographics.org/manual/

Contains the reference manual

AUTHORS ^

Ross McFarland <rwmcfa1 at neces dot com>
Torsten Schoenfeld <kaffeetisch at gmx dot de>

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (C) 2004-2013 by the cairo perl team

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