Xiong Changnian > Cheat-Meta-v0.0.5 > Cheat::Sheet::Util

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NAME ^

Cheat::Sheet::Util - Cheat sheet for utility modules

VERSION ^

This document describes Cheat::Sheet::Util version 0.0.5

SYNOPSIS ^

    $ vim Cheat/Sheet::Util.perl
    :syn on

DESCRIPTION ^

I only had a high school education and believe me, I had to cheat to get that. --Sparky Anderson

This is a collection of "cheat sheets": highly compressed, abbreviated documentation for various modules. Each module within the bundle covers a top-level namespace or a set of otherwise closely-related modules.

For each module, a paragraph is given, generally:

    Some::Module            # Short description
        qw( various exportable symbols if any );
        routine( $placeholder, @arguments );
        $context    = function( @arguments);
        $object->method();

You should be able to copy and paste this into your own code, delete what you don't need, and be on your way.

CHEATS ^

Scalar::Util

    use Scalar::Util;               # General-utility scalar subroutines
    use Scalar::Util qw(
        weaken isweak reftype refaddr blessed isvstring readonly tainted
        dualvar looks_like_number openhandle set_prototype
    );
        weaken $ref;            # $ref will not keep @$ref, %$ref, etc. from GC
                                # note: copies of weak refs are not weak
        $bool = isweak  $ref;       # true if $ref is a weak reference
        $type = reftype $ref;       # 'SCALAR', 'ARRAY', 'HASH', or undef
        $addr = refaddr $ref;       # machine address of $ref or undef
        $got  = blessed $ref;       # class of blessed ref or undef
        $bool = isvstring $s;       # true if $s is a v-string
        $bool = readonly  $s;       # true if $s is a readonly scalar
        $bool = tainted   $s;       # true if $s is tainted
        $got  = dualvar $num, $string;      # $got is $num or $string in context
        $bool = looks_like_number $n;       # true if $n can be a number
        $fh   = openhandle $t_fh;       # $h if $t_fh is a tied or open filehandle
        set_prototype $cref, $proto;        # sets prototype of &$cref to $proto
    ## Scalar::Util

List::Util

    use List::Util;                 # General-utility list subroutines
    use List::Util qw( max maxstr min minstr first reduce shuffle sum );
        $got  = max    @a;          # returns item >  than all the rest
        $got  = maxstr @a;          # returns item gt than all the rest
        $got  = min    @a;          # returns item <  than all the rest
        $got  = minstr @a;          # returns item lt than all the rest
        $got  = first  {$_} @a;     # ~grep but returns only first true item
        $got  = reduce { $bool?$a:$b } @a;  # returns one item; last man standing
        $got  = sum @a;             # sum of all elements
        @gots = shuffle @a;         # pseudo-randomizes order of @a
        # "The following are additions that have been requested..."
        sub any { $_ && return 1 for @_; 0 };       # One argument is true
        sub all { $_ || return 0 for @_; 1 };       # All arguments are true
        sub none { $_ && return 0 for @_; 1 };      # All arguments are false
        sub notall { $_ || return 1 for @_; 0 };    # One argument is false
        sub true { scalar grep { $_ } @_ };         # How many elements are true
        sub false { scalar grep { !$_ } @_ };       # How many elements are false
    ## List::Util

List::MoreUtils

    use List::MoreUtils ':all';     # The stuff missing in List::Util
    use List::MoreUtils qw(
        any all none notall true false firstidx first_index
        lastidx last_index insert_after insert_after_string
        apply after after_incl before before_incl indexes
        firstval first_value lastval last_value each_array
        each_arrayref pairwise natatime mesh zip uniq minmax
    );
        # These operators take a block (~grep), setting $_ to each item in @a
        # Your block should test $_ and return a $bool
        $bool  = any    {$_} @a;    # true if any test  is  true   (  $A ||  $B )
        $bool  = all    {$_} @a;    # true if all tests are true   (  $A &&  $B )
        $bool  = none   {$_} @a;    # true if all tests are false  ( !$A && !$B )
        $bool  = notall {$_} @a;    # true if any test  is  false  ( !$A || !$B )
        #   #   #   #   #   #   De Morgan's Laws:    #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
        # ( !$A && !$B ) == !(  $A || $B  ) and ( !$A || !$B ) == !(  $A &&  $B )
        # (  $A &&  $B ) == !( !$A || !$B ) and (  $A ||  $B ) == !( !$A && !$B )
        $count = true   {$_} @a;        # how many true tests
        $count = false  {$_} @a;        # how many false tests
        $got  = firstidx{$_} @a;        # first item with true test
        $got  = first_index             # ditto; alias firstidx
        $got  = lastidx {$_} @a;        # last item with true test
        $got  = last_index              # ditto; alias lastidx
        $got  = insert_after {$_} $v => @a;   # put $v in @a after first true test
        $got  = insert_after_string $s, $v => @a;  # insert after first item eq $s
        @gots = apply       {$_} @a;    # ~ map but doesn't modify @a
        @gots = after       {$_} @a;    # ( c )    ~~ after       {/b/} (a, b, c)
        @gots = after_incl  {$_} @a;    # ( b, c ) ~~ after_incl  {/b/} (a, b, c)
        @gots = before      {$_} @a;    # ( a )    ~~ before      {/b/} (a, b, c)
        @gots = before_incl {$_} @a;    # ( a, b ) ~~ before_incl {/b/} (a, b, c)
        @gots = indexes     {$_} @a;    # ( 1 )    ~~ indexes     {/b/} (a, b, c)
        $got  = firstval    {$_} @a;    # ~List::Util::first() but -1 on fail
        $got  = first_value             # ditto; alias firstval
        $got  = lastval     {$_} @a;    # last item testing true
        $got  = last_value              # ditto; alias lastval
        $cref = each_array @a, @b, @c;  # creates an n-tuplewise iterator closure
        while ( my ($A, $B, $C) = $cref->() ) {     # returns empty list
            # Your code here                        #   when all lists exhausted
        };
        $cref = each_arrayref @a, @b, @c;   # iterator returns refs to arg lists
        $cref = natatime $n, @a;    # creates $n-at-a-time iterator from one list
        @gots = pairwise    {$_} @a, @b;    # ~map over two arrays
        @gots = mesh @a, @b, @c;    # ( $a[0], $b[0], $c[0], $a[1], $b[1], $c[1] )
        @gots = zip  @a, @b, @c;    # ditto; alias mesh
        @gots = uniq @a;            # returns *only* unique elements
        ( $min, $max )  = minmax @a;    # ~( List::Util::min(@a), ::max(@a) )
        @refs = part { $p = f($_) } @a; # partitions @a into multiple lists
        # you return integer $p as index of @refs; @refs is a list of arrayrefs
    ## List::MoreUtils

List::AllUtils

    use List::AllUtils qw( :all );  # Everything from List::Util, List::MoreUtils

List::Compare

    use List::Compare;              # Compare elements of two or more lists
    # This object-oriented module is highly orthogonal,
    #   so that nearly any selection or choice may be combined with any other.
    # Most methods are equally okay for ( just two ) or ( three or more ) lists;
    #   some will Carp if called inappropriately.
    #                            === Options/Modes ===
    #           Regular: (default) Two lists, sorted results, many method calls ok
    #          Unsorted: Don't sort method results              ( faster )
    #       Accelerated: Only one method call possible per $lc  ( faster )
    #          Multiple: Three or more lists in constructor
    # ! (specify $ix to refer to a given list; default 0; omit for only two lists)
    #         Seen-hash: Use hashrefs instead of arrayrefs:
    #   [ 11, 12, 14, 14, 14, 15 ] ~~ { 11 => 1, 12 => 1, 14 => 3, 15 => 1 }
    #
        # Construct a work-object
        my $lc = List::Compare->new(             \@a, \@b, @c );  # default
        my $lc = List::Compare->new( '-u',       \@a, \@b, @c );  # unsorted
        my $lc = List::Compare->new(       '-a', \@a, \@b, @c );  # accelerated
        my $lc = List::Compare->new( '-u', '-a', \@a, \@b, @c );  #! -u before -a
        # Wrap constructor arguments in a hashref
        my $lc = List::Compare->new({
            unsorted    => 1,
            accelerated => 1,
            lists       => [ \@a, \@b, @c ],
        });
        # Methods return lists of results
        @gots = $lc->get_intersection;          # found in each/both list(s)
        @gots = $lc->get_union;                 # found in any/either list
        @gots = $lc->get_bag;                   # ~get_union but also duplicates
        @gots = $lc->get_unique($ix);           # found only in list $ix
        @gots = $lc->get_complement($ix);       # not found in $ix, but elsewhere
        @gots = $lc->get_symmetric_difference;  # found in only one list
        $gots = $lc->get_intersection_ref;          # ~methods above but
        $gots = $lc->get_union_ref;                 #           returns \@gots
        $gots = $lc->get_bag_ref;                   #       "
        $gots = $lc->get_unique_ref($ix);           #       "
        $gots = $lc->get_complement_ref($ix);       #       "
        $gots = $lc->get_symmetric_difference_ref;  #       "
        # Methods return boolean truth      # ( $ixL, $ixR ) default to ( 0, 1 )
        $bool = $lc->is_LsubsetR( $ixL, $ixR );     # true if all L in R
        $bool = $lc->is_RsubsetL( $ixL, $ixR );     # true if all R in L
        $bool = $lc->is_LequivalentR( $ixL, $ixR ); # true if same items in L, R
        $bool = $lc->is_LdisjointR( $ixL, $ixR );   # true if no items in common
        # Methods return list of which lists ($ix) satisfying conditions
        @ixs  = $lc->is_member_which($string);      # some item in $ix eq $string
        @ixs  = $lc->are_members_which(\@strings);  # ~prev but eq any in @strings
        # Dump
        $lc->print_subset_chart;        # pretty-print tables showing some
        $lc->print_equivalence_chart;   #   relationships; row/col as $ix
    # List::Compare

Hash::Util

    use Hash::Util;                 # Hash locking, key locking, value locking
    use Hash::Util qw(
        lock_keys lock_keys_plus unlock_keys
        lock_value unlock_value
        lock_hash unlock_hash lock_hash_recurse unlock_hash_recurse
        hash_locked hidden_keys legal_keys all_keys
    );
        # Restrict %hash to a set of keys; can delete but can't add other keys
        \%hash = lock_keys     ( %hash );           # current keys %hash
        \%hash = lock_keys     ( %hash, @keys );    # @keys; subset of keys @hash
        \%hash = lock_keys_plus( %hash, @keys );    #        superset
        \%hash = unlock_keys   ( %hash );           # remove restrictions
        # Cannot alter value of $key but can delete the k/v pair
        \%hash = lock_value    ( %hash, $key );
        \%hash = unlock_value  ( %hash, $key );
        # Lock the whole %hash; can't add, delete, or change value at all
        \%hash = lock_hash              ( %hash );
        \%hash = unlock_hash            ( %hash );
        \%hash = lock_hash_recurse      ( %hash );  # HoHoH... only
        \%hash = unlock_hash_recurse    ( %hash );  #   ditto
        # Other functions...
        $bool  = hash_unlocked ( %hash );       # true if %hash is unlocked
        @keys  = legal_keys    ( %hash );       # list of keys allowed
        @keys  = hidden_keys   ( %hash );       # see docs; experimental feature
        \%hash = all_keys( %hash, @keys, @hidden );       # experimental feature
        # Just like Daddy but take hashref arguments
        \%hash = lock_ref_keys          ( \%hash );
        \%hash = lock_ref_keys          ( \%hash, @keys );
        \%hash = lock_ref_keys_plus     ( \%hash, @keys );
        \%hash = unlock_ref_keys        ( \%hash );
        \%hash = lock_ref_value         ( \%hash, $key );
        \%hash = unlock_ref_value       ( \%hash, $key );
        \%hash = lock_hashref           ( \%hash );
        \%hash = unlock_hashref         ( \%hash );
        \%hash = lock_hashref_recurse   ( \%hash );
        \%hash = unlock_hashref_recurse ( \%hash );
        $bool  = hash_ref_unlocked      ( \%hash );
        @keys  = legal_ref_keys         ( \%hash );
        @keys  = hidden_ref_keys        ( \%hash );
    ## Hash::Util

SEE ALSO ^

FUNCTIONS/METHODS ^

None. This module contains only POD. Don't try to load it.

INTERFACE ^

Open the cheat (the *.perl file) in your editor. Copy out whatever you like.

If you look at the *.pod file, you'll see POD verbatim paragraphs. Your choice.

You can also get the same content in your pager with:

    perldoc Cheat::Sheet::Util

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS ^

No cheat sheet will teach you anything. It's only a reminder. You must consult each module's own full documentation at least before using it. I hope.

This module does not contain magic to squirt code into your module. Copy and paste.

No boilerplate code will work right away. Edit it to your needs.

THANKS ^

AUTHOR ^

Xiong Changnian <xiong@cpan.org>

LICENSE ^

Copyright (C) 2010 Xiong Changnian <xiong@cpan.org>

This library and its contents are released under Artistic License 2.0:

http://www.opensource.org/licenses/artistic-license-2.0.php

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