View on
MetaCPAN is shutting down
For details read Perl NOC. After June 25th this page will redirect to
Xiong Changnian > Error-Base-v1.0.2 > Error::Base::Cookbook



Annotate this POD


New  1
Open  1
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: v1.0.2   Source  


Error::Base::Cookbook - Examples of Error::Base usage


This document describes Error::Base version v1.0.2



Basic use of Error::Base is quite simple; and advanced usage is not hard. The author hopes that nobody is forced to consult this Cookbook. But I am myself quite fond of cookbook-style documentation; I get more from seeing it all work together than from cut-and-dried reference manuals. I like those too, though; and comprehensive reference documentation is found in Error::Base.

If you make use of Error::Base and don't find a similar example here in its Cookbook, please be so kind as to send your use case to me for future inclusion. Thank you very much.


The examples shown here in POD are also present as executable code.

Sanity Check

    my $obviously_true  = 0;
    Error::Base->crash('Unexpected zero')
        unless $obviously_true;

You are certain that this will never happen but you decide to check it anyway. No need to plan ahead; just drop in a sanity check.

    if    ( $case1 ) { $pointer++ } 
    elsif ( $case2 ) { $pointer-- } 
    elsif ( $case3 ) {  } 
    else             { Error::Base->crash('Unimplemented case') };

In constructs like this, it's tempting to think you've covered every possible case. Avoid this fallacy by checking explicitly for each implemented case.

    Error::Base->crash;         # emits 'Undefined error.' with backtrace.

Don't forget to pass some error message text. Unless you're in real big foo.

Construct First

    my $err     = Error::Base->new('Foo');
    my $err     = Error::Base->new(
                    -base     => 'First',
                    -type     => 'Second',

If you like to plan your error ahead of time, invoke new() with any set of arguments you please. This will help keep your code uncluttered.

Construct and Throw in One Go

        -base     => 'First',
        -type     => 'Second',
        -mesg     => 'Third',

You aren't required to construct first, though. Each of the public methods crash(), crank(), and cuss() function as constructors and may be called either as a class or object method. Each method accepts all the same parameters as new().

Avoiding Death

    Error::Base->crank('More gruel!');          # as class method
    my $err = Error::Base->new;
    $err->crank;                                # as object method
    my $err = Error::Base->new('See me');
    $err->cuss('Feel me');                      # trace stored in object
    my $err = Error::Base->cuss('x%@#*!');      # also a constructor

crank() warns of your error condition. Perhaps it's not that serious. The current fashion is to make almost all errors fatal but it's your call.

cuss() neither dies nor warns but it does perform a full backtrace from the point of call. You might find it most useful when debugging your error handling itself; substitute 'crash' or 'crank' later.


    my $err     = Error::Base->new( -base => 'Odor detected:' );
    $err->init( _cooked => 1 );
    $err->cuss ( -type => $fart )           if $fart;
    $err->crank( -type => 'Air underflow' ) if $fart > $room;
    add_recipie( $err );
    $err->crash( -type => 'Evacuate now' )  if $fire;

Once constructed, the same object may be thrown repeatedly, with multiple methods. On each invocation, new arguments overwrite old ones but previously declared attributes, public and private, remain in force if not overwritten. Also on each invocation, the stack is traced afresh and the error message text re-composed and re-formatted.

Trapping the Fatal Error Object

    eval{ Error::Base->crash('Houston...') };   # trap...
    my $err     = $@ if $@;                     # ... and examine the object

crash() does, internally, construct an object if called as a class method. If you trap the error you can capture the object and look inside it.

Backtrace Control

    $err->crash( -quiet         => 1,  );       # no backtrace
    $err->crash( -nest          => -2, );       # really full backtrace
    $err->crash( -nest          => +2, );       # skip two more top frames

Set -quiet to any TRUE value to silence stack backtrace entirely.

By default, you get a full stack backtrace: "full" meaning, from the point of invocation. Some stack frames are added by the process of crash()-ing itself; by default, these are not seen. If you want more or fewer frames you may set -nest to a different value.

Beware that future implementations may change the number of stack frames added internally by Error::Base; and also you may see a different number of frames if you subclass, depending on how you do that.

Wrapper Routine

    sub _crash { Error::Base->crash( @_, -nest => +1 ) }; 
    # ... later...
    _crash('Unexpected zero')
        unless $obviously_true;

Write a wrapper routine when trying to wedge sanity checks into dense code. Error::Base is purely object-oriented and exports nothing. Don't forget to use -nest to drop additional frames if you don't want to see the wrapper in your backtrace.

Dress Left

    Error::Base->crash ( 
        -mesg       => 'Let\'s eat!', 
        -prepend    => '@! Black Tie Lunch:',
        # emits "@! Black Tie Lunch: Let's eat!
        #        @                   in main::fubar at line 42    []"

    Error::Base->crash ( 
        -mesg       => 'Let\'s eat!', 
        -prepend    => '@! Black Tie Lunch:',
        -indent     => '%--' 
        # emits "@! Black Tie Lunch: Let's eat!
        #        %-- in main::fubar at line 42    []"

    Error::Base->crash ( 
        -mesg       => 'Let\'s eat!', 
        -indent     => '%--' 
        # emits "%-- Let's eat!
        #        %-- in main::fubar at line 42    []"

Any string passed to -prepend will be prepended to the first line only of the formatted error message. If -indent is defined then that will be prepended to all following lines. If -indent is undefined then it will be formed (from the first character only of -prepend) and (padded with spaces to the length of -prepend). If only -indent is defined then it will be prepended to all lines. You can override default actions by passing the empty string.

Message Composition

    my $err     = Error::Base->new;
    $err->crash;                        # 'Undefined error'
    $err->crash( 'Pronto!' );           # 'Pronto!'
            -base   => 'Bar',
            -type   => 'last call',
        );                              # 'Bar last call'
            -base   => 'Bar',
            -type   => 'last call',
        );                              # 'Bar last call Pronto!'
            -base   => 'Bar',
            -type   => 'last call',
            -mesg   => 'Pronto!',
        );                              # 'Bar last call Pronto!'

    my $err     = Error::Base->new;
    my ( $n1, $n2, $n3 ) = ( 'Huey', 'Dewey', 'Louie' );
            -mesg   => [ 'Meet', $n1, $n2, $n3, 'tonight!' ],
        );                              # 'Meet Huey Dewey Louie tonight!'

As a convenience, if the number of arguments passed in is odd, then the first arg is shifted off and appnended to the error message. This is done to simplify writing one-off, one-line sanity checks.

For a little more structure, you may pass values to -base, -type, and -mesg. All values supplied will be joined; by default, with a single space.

If you pass an array reference to -mesg then you can print out any number of strings, one after the other.

    my $err     = Error::Base->new(
                    -base       => 'Pep Boys:',
    $err->crash('Jack');                # emits 'Pep Boys: Jack' and backtrace

Remember, new arguments overwrite old values. The init() method can be called directly on an existing object to overwrite object attributes without expanding the message or tracing the stack. If you mean to expand and trace without throwing, invoke cuss().

Interpolation in Scope

    my $filename    = 'debug246.log';
    open( my $in_fh, '<', $filename )
        or Error::Base->crash("Failed to open $filename for reading.");

Nothing special here; as usual, double quotes interpolate a variable that is in scope at the place where the error is thrown.

Late Interpolation

    my $err     = Error::Base->new(
                        'Failed to open $filename for reading.',
                    -base       => 'My::Module error:',
    sub bar {
        my $err         = shift;
        my $filename    = 'debug246.log';
        open( my $in_fh, '<', $filename )
            or $err->crash(
                            '$filename' => \$filename,
                        );      # 'Failed to open debug246.log for reading.'

If we want to declare lengthy error text well ahead of time, double-quotey interpolation will serve us poorly. In the example, $filename isn't in scope when we construct $err. Hey, we don't even know what the filename will be.

Enclose the string to be late-interpolated in single quotes (to avoid a failed attempt to interpolate immediately) and pass the value when you have it ready, in scope. For clarity, I suggest you pass a reference to the variable $foo as the value of the key '$foo'. The key must be quoted to avoid it being parsed as a variable.

As with normal, in-scope interpolation, you can late-interpolate scalars, arrays, array slices, hash slices, or various escape sequences. There is the same potential for ambiguity, since the actual interpolation is eventually done by perl.

See "Quote and Quote-like Operators" in perlop.

Late interpolation is performed after the entire error message is composed and before any prepending, indentation, line-breaking, or stack tracing.

    my $err     = Error::Base->new(
                    '$sca'          => 'one',
                    '@ary_ref'      => [ 'white', 'black' ],
                    '%hash_ref'     => { hash => 'hog', toe => 'jam' },
    $err->crash( '|$sca|@ary_ref|$ary_ref[1]|@hash_ref{ qw/ hash toe / }|' );
                                # emits '|one|white black|black|hog jam|'

You may use scalar or array placeholders, signifying them with the usual sigils. Although you pass a reference, use the appropriate $, @ or % sigil to lead the corresponding key. As a convenience, you may pass simple scalars directly. (It's syntactically ugly to pass a reference to a literal scalar.) Any value that is not a reference will be late-interpolated directly; anything else will be deferenced (once).

This is Perlish interpolation, only delayed. You can interpolate escape sequences and anything else you would in a double-quoted string. You can pass a reference to a package variable; but do so against a simple key such as '$aryref'.

    my $err     = Error::Base->new(
                    '$trigger'      => 1,       # unused key triggers "late"
                    -base       => 'Trouble:',
                    -type       => 'Right here in $self->{_where}!',
    $err->crash( _where => 'River City' );  
                                # emits 'Trouble: Right here in River City!'

As a further convenience, you may interpolate a value from the error object itself. In the previous example, '$self->{_where}' is late-interpolated into -type (please note the single quotes). And also, _where is defined as 'River City'. Note that Error::Base has no idea what you have called your error object (perhaps '$err'); use the placeholder '$self' in the string to be expanded.

Don't forget to store your value against the appropriate key! This implementation of this feature does not peek into your pad. You may not receive an 'uninitialized' warning if a value is missing.

If you don't like this feature, don't use it and it won't bug you. Currently you must pass a sigiled key to trigger late interpolation.

Local List Separator

    local $"    = '=';
        -base     => 'First',
        -type     => 'Second',
    );                                  # emits 'First=Second=Third'

Rationally, I think, message parts should be joined by a single space. Note that array elements are normally interpolated, separated by spaces. Perl uses the value of $" ($LIST_SEPARATOR).

If, for some reason, you wish to see message parts and interpolated elements joined by something else, localize $".


This module contains executable code matching each snippet you see in POD; this code is exercised by the Error::Base test suite. You're welcome to look. Please, don't try to use the ::Cookbook!


Included in this distribution is a script,; output shown here. A single error object is constructed and used throughout. First there is a silent invocation of cuss(); then you see a warning with crank(); then a fatal error is thrown with crash(), trapped, printed, and finally dumped using Devel::Comments. Each invocation generates a stack backtrace from the point of throw.

Note that when printed, the error object stringifies to the intended error message and backtrace. The dump shows the true contents of the object. Note also that the private key _private is retained in the object; while the message text and backtrace is re-created at each invocation.

    Demo: cranking in eluder
    in Spathi::eluder at line 38    [demo/]
    in Pkunk::fury    at line 31    [demo/]
    _________________ at line 19    [demo/]
    Demo: crashing in scout
    in (eval)          at line 50    [demo/]
    in Shofixti::scout at line 50    [demo/]
    in Spathi::eluder  at line 42    [demo/]
    in Pkunk::fury     at line 31    [demo/]
    __________________ at line 19    [demo/]
    ### $trap: bless( {
    ###                 '-all' => 'Demo: crashing in scout',
    ###                 '-base' => 'Demo:',
    ###                 '-frames' => [
    ###                                {
    ###                                  '-eval' => undef,
    ###                                  '-file' => 'demo/',
    ###                                  '-line' => '50',
    ###                                  '-package' => 'Shofixti',
    ###                                  '-sub' => '(eval)         '
    ###                                },
    ###                                {
    ###                                  '-eval' => undef,
    ###                                  '-file' => 'demo/',
    ###                                  '-line' => '50',
    ###                                  '-package' => 'Shofixti',
    ###                                  '-sub' => 'Shofixti::scout'
    ###                                },
    ###                                {
    ###                                  '-eval' => undef,
    ###                                  '-file' => 'demo/',
    ###                                  '-line' => '42',
    ###                                  '-package' => 'Spathi',
    ###                                  '-sub' => 'Spathi::eluder '
    ###                                },
    ###                                {
    ###                                  '-eval' => undef,
    ###                                  '-file' => 'demo/',
    ###                                  '-line' => '31',
    ###                                  '-package' => 'Pkunk',
    ###                                  '-sub' => 'Pkunk::fury    '
    ###                                },
    ###                                {
    ###                                  '-bottom' => 1,
    ###                                  '-eval' => undef,
    ###                                  '-file' => 'demo/',
    ###                                  '-line' => '19',
    ###                                  '-package' => 'main',
    ###                                  '-sub' => '_______________'
    ###                                }
    ###                              ],
    ###                 '-lines' => [
    ###                               'Demo: crashing in scout',
    ###                               'in (eval)          at line 50    [demo/]',
    ###                               'in Shofixti::scout at line 50    [demo/]',
    ###                               'in Spathi::eluder  at line 42    [demo/]',
    ###                               'in Pkunk::fury     at line 31    [demo/]',
    ###                               '__________________ at line 19    [demo/]'
    ###                             ],
    ###                 '-mesg' => '',
    ###                 '-top' => 2,
    ###                 '-type' => 'crashing in scout',
    ###                 _private => 'foo'
    ###               }, 'Error::Base' )


Many error-related modules are available on CPAN. Some do bizarre things.

Error is self-deprecated in its own POD as "black magic"; which recommends Exception::Class instead.

Exception installs a $SIG{__DIE__} handler that converts text passed to die into an exception object. It permits environment variables and setting global state; and implements a try syntax. This module may be closest in spirit to Error::Base. For some reason, I can't persuade cpan to find it.

Carp is well-known and indeed, does a full backtrace with confess(). The better-known carp() may be a bit too clever and in any case, the dump is not formatted to my taste. The module is full of global variable settings. It's not object-oriented and an error object can't easily be pre-created.

The pack leader seems to be Exception::Class. Error::Base differs most strongly in that it has a shorter learning curve (since it does much less); confines itself to error message emission (catching errors is another job); and does a full stack backtrace dump by default. Less code may also be required for simple tasks.

To really catch errors, I like Test::Trap ('block eval on steroids'). It has a few shortcomings but is extremely powerful. I don't see why its use should be confined to testing.

The line between emitting a message and catching it is blurred in many related modules. I did not want a jack-in-the-box object that phoned home if it was thrown under a full moon. The only clever part of an Error::Base object is that it stringifies.

It may be true to say that many error modules seem to expect to be caught. I usually expect my errors to cause all execution to come to a fatal, non-recoverable crash. Oh, yes; I agree it's sometimes needful to catch such errors, especially during testing. But if you're regularly throwing and catching, the term 'exception' may be appropriate but perhaps not 'error'.


Xiong Changnian <>


Copyright (C) 2011, 2013 Xiong Changnian <>

This library and its contents are released under Artistic License 2.0:



syntax highlighting: